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History of Eureka - History

History of Eureka - History


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Eureka

Former name retained.

( ScStr: t. 60; 1. 86'; b. 12'8"; dph. 3'6"; cpl. 19; a. 2 guns)

Eureka, a screw steamer, was captured 20 April 1862 in the Rappahannock River, VA., by Anacostia; purchased by the Navy 22 August 1862; and assigned to duty in the Potomac Flotilla, Acting Ensign J. J. Brice in command.

For the next 2 1/2 years, Eureka patrolled the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers and their tributaries, to prevent the passage of people and commerce between the Confederates in Virginia and their sympathizers in Maryland. Her shallow draft made her ideal for this duty essential to controlling the flow of intelligence and supplies to the South. Inactive after March 1865, Eureka was sold at Washington 16 September 1865.

II
On 25 April 1943 PC-488 (q.v.) was reclassified and named Eureka (IX-211).


Eureka County, Nevada

Eureka County was established in 1873 and formed from Lander County after silver was discovered more than 100 miles (160 km) east of Austin. The new mining camp's residents complained Austin was too far to go for county business and a new county was created. It was named for the ancient Greek term, Eureka, meaning, "I have found it." [3] This term was used earlier in California and other locations. Eureka has always been the county seat.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,180 square miles (10,800 km 2 ), of which 4,176 square miles (10,820 km 2 ) is land and 4.3 square miles (11 km 2 ) (0.1%) is water. [4]

The county's highest point is the 10,631 ft (3240 m) summit of Diamond Peak in the Diamond Mountains along the border with White Pine County. [5]

Adjacent counties Edit

National protected area Edit

Major highways Edit

Historical population
Census Pop.
18807,086
18903,275 −53.8%
19001,954 −40.3%
19101,830 −6.3%
19201,350 −26.2%
19301,333 −1.3%
19401,361 2.1%
1950896 −34.2%
1960767 −14.4%
1970948 23.6%
19801,198 26.4%
19901,547 29.1%
20001,651 6.7%
20101,987 20.4%
2019 (est.)2,029 [6] 2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [7]
1790-1960 [8] 1900-1990 [9]
1990-2000 [10] 2010-2018 [1]

2000 census Edit

At the 2000 census there were 1,651 people, 666 households, and 440 families living in the county. The population density was 0.39 people per square mile (0.15/km 2 ). There were 1,025 housing units at an average density of 0.25 per square mile (0.09/km 2 ). [11] Of the 666 households 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 5.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.90% were non-families. 29.10% of households were one person and 9.90% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.08.

The age distribution was 27.80% under the age of 18, 5.20% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 25.90% from 45 to 64, and 12.40% 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.20 males.

The county's median household income was $41,417, and the median family income was $49,438. Males had a median income of $45,167 versus $25,000 for females. The county's per capita income was $18,629. 12.60% of the population and 8.90% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the people living in poverty, 11.70% are under the age of 18 and 16.40% are 65 or older.

2010 census Edit

At the 2010 census, there were 1,987 people, 836 households, and 495 families living in the county. [12] The population density was 0.5 inhabitants per square mile (0.19/km 2 ). There were 1,076 housing units at an average density of 0.3 per square mile (0.12/km 2 ). [13] The racial makeup of the county was 89.3% white, 2.4% American Indian, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 5.1% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 12.0% of the population. [12] In terms of ancestry, 43.3% were American, 14.8% were German, 11.4% were Irish, 7.3% were English, and 6.9% were Italian. [14]

Of the 836 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.8% were non-families, and 33.0% of households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 42.4 years. [12]

The median household income was $61,400 and the median family income was $75,179. Males had a median income of $54,625 versus $42,321 for females. The per capita income for the county was $30,306. About 9.9% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 13.9% of those age 65 or over. [15]

There are no incorporated places in Eureka County.

Census-designated places Edit

Other unincorporated places Edit

Eureka County is heavily Republican. This does not, however, have a large effect on elections in the state due to the fact that the majority of Nevada's population lives in Clark County and Washoe County.

Summary Of Political Climate

Eureka County is strongly Republican, The last time they voted for a Democratic candidate was in 1964, and the last time a Democratic candidate recorded a quarter of the county's vote was in 1988. The last time a Republican candidate didn't record a majority of the county's vote was in 1992, when the vote was somewhat split when independent candidate Ross Perot recorded approximately a third of the county's vote. In 2016, Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton received only 8.67% of the vote.


EUREKA&rsquos History

We have been given another year in which to grow in understanding and an appreciation for all that is good in our lives. In musing about years gone by, I remembered that many of our Site-Coordinators today are new or relatively new EUREKA Users. As such, you may not be aware of our history. The following is a summary of our beginnings.

EUREKA was founded as a California non-profit organization in 1977 by a group of high school and community college counselors in the San Francisco Bay Area. Our founders were called the Bay Area Computer Educators (BACE).

BACE wanted to provide better career and college advising services to their students, and decided the computer would be the ideal delivery mode. In 1977, the computer was in its infancy and not widely used in typical educational environments, to them the computer appeared to be an ideal mode of delivery.

BACE researched and found a software program that would meet their needs. The program was being developed at the University of Oregon. An agreement was negotiated, and the program was brought to California.

The group began by replacing the Oregon information with California information. All of the work was done by volunteers, Contra Costa and Diablo Valley Community Colleges provided free computer support.

Initially, only schools where BACE members worked received the EUREKA service. As other districts became aware of the program, they also wanted access for their students. The program was becoming too much for the volunteer staff to handle. As a result, the first paid staff was hired in 1979.


History of Eureka - History

Eureka Springs, Arkansas has welcomed visitors for hundreds of years. Legends of several tribes spoke of a Great Healing Spring in the mountains of what later became known as "Arkansas." Early visitors believed this spring to be Basin Spring itself, and the magical waters drew the afflicted in such numbers that Eureka Springs transformed from an isolated wilderness to a flourishing city in a few short months. The waters would gain national acclaim with the beginning of Ozarka Bottling Company which continues today.

The City of Eureka Springs was founded and named on July 4, 1879. As word of Eureka's miraculous, healing waters began to spread, thousands of visitors flocked to the original encampment of tents and hastily built shanties.

By late 1879, the estimated population of Eureka Springs reached 10,000 people and in 1881, the town was declared a "City of the First Class," the fourth largest city in Arkansas. Stories of its founding and much of the heated history that followed is re-told daily on the Eureka Springs Walking tours.

"There is a story, very popular with the health-seekers camped around the spring they called The Basin, that Sioux Indians brought the young daughter of a great Chieftan to the Spring in search of healing. She suffered from an eye affliction which had taken away her sight, and the people were deeply saddened that such a fate should befall their beloved little princess. The young girl bathed her eyes in the waters, and within a short time her eyesight was fully restored, to the great joy of her people who told the story far and wide until it reached the ears of the first white men exploring the region."

The City of Eureka Springs was founded and named on July 4, 1879. As word of Eureka's miraculous, healing waters began to spread, thousands of visitors flocked to the original encampment of tents and hastily built shanties.

"The location of the city is the last one in the world which would ordinarily have been chosen. The impossibility of presenting a striking and vivid picture of Eureka Springs has been fully realized by every person who has made the attempt, and the most powerful descriptive writer would rise from the task dissatisfied with the best efforts of his pen. To group and present a few of its most prominent features would utterly fail to do justice to a city without parallel--unique, phenomenal, picturesque and beautiful."


History of Eureka - History

Eureka produced more than four times the wealth that Austin did, yet its history is rather prim and staid compared to adventurous Austin. Perhaps it was because the principal product of the mines was lead, rather than silver or gold, and drew a less romantic breed of citizen perhaps it was because, being richer, Eureka was simply less hysterical.

In any case, Eureka overtook Austin in size and mining productivity during the middle 1870s when the Eureka & Palisade Railroad was extended south from the Central Pacific without the necessity of bulging the city limits to meet it. By 1878, when Austin had already begun its decline, Eureka had a population of about 9,000 and had taken second place among Nevada cities. There were dozens of saloons, gambling houses and bawdy houses, three opera houses, two breweries, five volunteer firefighting companies, and two companies of militia as well as the usual complement of doctors, lawyers, merchants, bankers, hotels, newspapers, and other businesses. Fifty mines produced lead, silver, gold, and zinc for the smelters, which could process more than 700 tons of ore a day.

In 1879 though, flooding became more of a problem and economy measures were taken. One of these was to reduce the price paid for charcoal at the smelters. The Carbonari -- members of the predominantly-Italian Charcoal Burner's Association -- answered with a boycott. The smelters shut down for lack of fuel and passions flamed up. Threats and counter-threats raged between all the parties to the dispute. When the Carbonari threatened to make charcoal of all of Eureka, a sheriff's posse ambushed a number of them, killing five and wounding more.

Mining production peaked in 1882 and tailed off rapidly after 1885 by 1891 the major mines had been shut down, and production lapsed into the long snooze that had claimed Austin a decade earlier.

Many of its buildings are impressive, but the city's architectural jewel is the recently refurbished Eureka Opera House. Built in the fall of 1880 on the smoldering site of the burned-down Odd Fellows' Hall, its grand opening was celebrated with a New Year's Eve gala masquerade ball. The Opera House now welcomes small conventions from around the state, performances by nationally recognized artists, even dinner theater, a cosmopolitan touch long unavailable in Eureka. The 1877 Jackson House next door has been restored to its original elegance, with nine Victorian bedrooms upstairs and a bar and gourmet restaurant back in service downstairs. The splendid Eureka County Court House across the street has been restored to original 1879 condition (but with 1995 foundations) visitors are welcome.

The Eureka Sentinel Building a block south has been converted to a wonderful museum, with the old newspaper back-shop as it was left when the last tramp printer finally called it quits. Fully equipped with type cases and working presses await an exoerienced hand, and the walls are papered with posters and handbills dating back to the 1880s. Local area information is available here as well, including a self-guided tour leaflet with information about many of the interesting buildings around town.

Some structures are less remarkable to look at than to know about. The Farmers and Merchants Bank building, for example, was originally a brewery, connected with the hotel across the street by an underground tunnel. The boom days were long over when the bank was organized by former District Attorney Edna Plummer, but it was solid enough to remain open through the National Bank Holiday of 1933. Banks were ordered to remain closed after the conclusion of business on the stated date, but the Eureka Bank avoided the closing by not concluding business, instead staying open day and night until the "holiday" ended.

About those tunnels: the story is that because Eureka's breweries were located on opposite ends of town, the heavy winters (and the availability of skilled miners) prompted the business people to drive tunnels underground from one end of town to the other in order to ensure the prompt delivery of beer to the saloons along Main Street. The truth may not be so prosaic. According to family recollection, Nevada governor Reinhold Sadler (whose two story brick home is half a block north of the Colonnade House) used a tunnel to get to his Main Street store in the winter so that he wouldn't have to meet his neighbors on the street. Much of the old tunneling has collapsed or is unsafe, but in its heyday it was quite comfortable to use, fancy, even, with bricked walls, and arched brick chambers reminiscent of medieval dungeons.

As the city's economy shrank with the closing of the mines, businesses and residences were acquired and maintained by the families (many of whom had come out of poverty in Europe) that stayed. Al's Hardware, to take one example out of many, still looks and functions as it did in 1880 when it was the Eureka General Mercantile store.

There is a small handful of shops and stores at the heart of town and an exceptional range of overnight accommodations, from the Jackson House to the Sundown Lodge motel and the new Best Western Eureka Inn on Main Street, and the elegant Parsonage House hideaway cottage B&B a block to the north. The Colonnade Hotel, a block to the south, is being restored and refurbished.

The Owl Club, a regionally famous restaurant and bar, was recently enlarged to include a gift shop offering Indian and western goods. Its fame rests on the steaks, but the menu includes some interesting variations, and the wine list is first class. The Jackson House also has an ambitious menu and fine wine list and The Pony Espresso Deli serves excellent sandwiches, salads and soups.

There are several cemeteries in Eureka, including one that was set aside for smallpox victims.

Tax money derived from the Carlin gold mine at the far northern end of the county has built a new high school and other modern community facilities in Eureka, including the enclosed pool open six days a week year-around.

And Eureka's mining fortunes may be rising again as the Homestake company has been exploring the historic Ruby Hill property.

The country around Eureka will probably always provide excellent hunting, and simply breathing in the cedar-scented air of the wide open spaces is an act of pure pleasure, utterly unimaginable to the people who lived here breathing its poisonous smoke in the century before last.


There are 13 matches (see list below)

Description: 12-mile cruise on Beaver Lake. Informative narrative of lake history and attractions, including Beaver Dam. View over 60 miles of scenic shoreline. Cruise around a 200 acre wildlife preserve and see the Ozark Bluff Dwellers burial ground. Daily departures May thru October at 11am, 1pm & 3pm (Closed Thursdays). A "must do" at[. ] more details

Description: Blocks and blocks of history, Victorian architecture, shops, art galleries, hotels, homes and cottages, and charming atmosphere. The entire downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in America.

Description: High atop the Arkansas Ozarks sits Eureka Springs' mountaintop spa resort that is "the symbol of Arkansas hospitality" and a proud member of the exclusive Historic Hotels of America. The Crescent Hotel has been the choice of those seeking a prestigious Eureka Springs wedding site, mountaintop spa getaway, or a comfort[. ] more details

Description: The Cobbler's Cottage is one of the oldest homes in Historic Eureka Springs and was the recipient of three 1994 Excellence in Restoration Awards. This charming dwelling offers a winning combination of quaint charm and contemporary luxury. The Cobblers has two floors with a bedroom on each, both with queen size beds. One bed[. ] more details

Description: The &ldquoCrystal Bridges&rdquo of Bible Museums and Biblically inspired art in Northwest Arkansas, the Bible Museum and Sacred Arts Gallery are incredible collections. The Bible Museum is composed of over 6,000 Bibles in over 325 languages and dialects. Some of the rarest Bibles include an original 1st edition, 1st printing 1[. ] more details

Description: Listed in Ripleys Believe it or Not. The only church you enter through the bell tower. Gift Shop hours are 10AM-4PM, 7 days a week from April thru October. Service schedule is as follows: (April - October) Saturday 5:00 Sunday 7:30AM Sunday 9:00AM. Admission is free of course, but donations are gratefully accepted.

For the MOST FUN in downtown Eureka Springs, choose The 1905 Basin Park Hotel. This historic seven-story structure towers over the entertainment district of downtown Eureka Springs -night spots, bistros, shopping and galleries- and adds to that downtown fun with its own Balcony Bar and Restaurant, Lucky Seven Rooftop Bil[. ] more details

Description: These open-air tram tours are operated by the City of Eureka Springs and feature an experienced local guide. Park your car and let someone else do the driving to all the must-sees of Eureka Springs. Please note: 1/ Groups, please call 479-253-6852 for reservations 2/ These tours are offered seasonally starting around April 1.

Description: See the colorful past of this unique town and the people who lived here. A fascinating collection of papers, photographs, mementos, official documents, home furnishings and other artifacts. Extensive research material and geneology. Hours: Monday-Friday 9:30 am to 4:00 pm, Sunday 11:00 am to 4:00pm We are open from 11:00 a.m. t[. ] more details

Description: Standing as a symbol for freedom from tyranny, a 10-foot section of the Berlin Wall is displayed near Christ of the Ozarks on the grounds of The New Great Passion Play. Psalm 23 was etched into the stone by East Berliners while imprisoned under Communism and is still visible today. Open daily. Admission is free. 800-882-7529.&nb[. ] more details

Description: High atop the Arkansas Ozarks sits Eureka Springs' mountaintop spa resort that is "the symbol of Arkansas hospitality" and a proud member of the exclusive Historic Hotels of America. The Crescent Hotel has been the choice of those seeking a prestigious Eureka Springs wedding site, mountaintop spa getaway, or a comfort[. ] more details

Description: For the MOST FUN in downtown Eureka Springs, choose The 1905 Basin Park Hotel. This historic seven-story structure towers over the entertainment district of downtown Eureka Springs -night spots, bistros, shopping and galleries- and adds to that downtown fun with its own Balcony Bar and Restaurant, Lucky Seven Rooftop Billiards S[. ] more details

Description: Eureka Springs offers several trolley routes to various locations around town. Most lodging establishments have front door service as do central locations in the downtown area. Park your car, get on a trolley and let THEM drive you to all the sights and attractions of Eureka Springs. Children 6 and under free.


Our History

Eureka College was founded by abolitionists from Kentucky who were members of a religious movement known as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and were committed to providing young people a broad, liberal education. These pioneers believed in an education infused with values as a basis for leadership. Chartered by the Illinois Legislature in 1855, Eureka was the first college in the state and third in the nation to admit men and women on an equal basis.

Eureka College was designated by the National Park Service as a Campus Historic District in the National Register of Historic Places in June 2010.

The campus architecture spans a number of popular styles from the past 150 years, including Italianate, Romanesque Revival, Colonial Revival and Collegiate Gothic Revival. The oldest remaining building on campus, Burrus Dickinson Hall, was constructed in 1858.

Rich With Tradition

Eureka is a college rich in tradition. When you pass along a glowing torch at the annual homecoming Torchlight Parade or experience the fun of finding the rum cake our senior class hides every year, you&rsquoll feel like a link in the long chain of Eureka history &ndash and that&rsquos because you are!

Eureka College traditions include:
The Ivy Ceremony

The Ivy Ceremony has, for many years, been a part of Eureka College Commencement Exercises. The tradition is traced back to 1925 and holds very special meaning to thousands of graduates who have matriculated from Eureka&rsquos hallowed halls. Ivy is representative of the characteristics of Eureka&rsquos community: strong, flexible, and tenacious. Faculty and staff endeavor to instill these qualities in our students.

Each year at Opening Convocation new students are given a sprig of ivy. Each student then places the ivy sprig into a collective basket symbolizing formal membership in the Eureka College community and a joining together to form this community. The ivy then symbolically grows together to form a single continuous vine as one becomes a full member of the EC family. This common bond is represented at Commencement in the form of an ivy chain.

The circle of ivy represents the strong bond that binds our graduates and our community together. Although the cutting of the ivy results in separation, it also reminds us of ivy&rsquos ability to take root elsewhere. It is our hope that our graduates will take with them these ivy springs and all they symbolize and spread the knowledge they have learned and the relationships and love they have experienced &ldquo&lsquoneath the elms.&rdquo

Recruiting Elm

The Recruiting Elm was an actual elm tree that was located on the Eureka College campus and has become famous for its historic significance. It was under this particular elm tree in April 1861 that Eureka students and faculty gathered to volunteer to fight in the Civil War. A total of 29 Eureka students and faculty joined Company G of the 17th Infantry of Illinois that day. The recruits elected Asa Burgess as their captain.

The original Recruiting Elm itself has long fallen &ndash however, as long as it stood, and as long as it remains in our memories &ndash it represents those students&rsquo and faculty&rsquos selfless act and sacrifice for a larger cause. Their act resonates on the campus still. Eureka students and faculty of today are proud to walk &ldquo&lsquoneath the elm&rdquo and its historic memory.


History of Eureka Montana

At the turn of the 20th Century the Tobacco Valley had scarcely been discovered by cattlemen and a few homesteaders. For centuries before it had been one of the main habitués of the Kutenai Indians. Although there were some minor incidents, for the most part the Kutenais settled peacefully on reservation land immediately north of the International Boundary.

The Great Northern Railroad pushed through to the west coast in 1892, but they chose a route far south of Tobacco Plains country. In 1904 they rebuilt over a longer, but easier route through the Tobacco Valley and the town of Eureka was born.

Prior to the coming of the railroad the only ways in were by an ancient Indian trail or a treacherous trip up the Kootenai River by sternwheeler boats. The railroad changed everything. Not only did it enable homesteaders to easily reach the valley, but it provided a means of exporting products.

Some dreamed of producing various agricultural products. Others combed the mountains looking for minerals. But the only product that ever left the valley in profitable amounts was lumber.

Founded in 1906, the Eureka Lumber Company thrived for the next 18 years. Initially they floated logs down the Tobacco River from logging camps around Trego and Fortine. When the easy to access timber along the river was exhausted they built a railroad up to Frank Lake around 1918.

The coming of World War I coincided with growing labor problems with the loggers, river drivers, mill workers and lumber company officials. The IWW attempted to organize the workers and federal troops were called for in the spring of 1917 to protect infrastructure. Patriotic fervor blunted the IWW’s efforts to organize, though discord continued after the war until 1924 when the mill closed and the IWW was no longer a factor in the area’s economy.

It was about this time that roads were built into the Tobacco Valley and people had another way to travel in and out. Some of the first to take advantage of these new roads were the rumrunners and bootleggers. With Eureka’s proximity to Canada where there was a readily available supply of alcohol and with homesteaders who were skilled in the making of moonshine, the era of prohibition contributed significantly to area history.

Things quieted during the 1930s and the local economy became almost dormant. The coming of World War II saw many young men leave the peaceful little valley for once-in-a-lifetime adventures in Europe and Asia.

Following the war, the lumber industry, now fitted with machines that enabled loggers to reach previously inaccessible timber, took off again. Another new industry also flourished. In the regrowth that followed the logging of the previous decades came an abundance of Douglas fir trees that found a market as Christmas trees. Through the 1950s and 1960s Christmas trees left the valley by the train load, so many that Eureka became known as the Christmas tree capitol of the world.

The next change to be wrought on Eureka and its surrounds was the flooding of the Kootenai River Valley by Libby Dam. The railroad now reaches Eureka as a spur line and though the production of timber flourished into the first years of the 21st Century, the major mills eventually closed. Eureka and the Tobacco Valley now depend largely on the influx of tourists who come to enjoy its relatively unspoiled environment.


Eureka History

Eureka was built in 1890, at Tiburon, California, for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railway (and named Ukiah to commemorate SF&NPR's recent rail extension into that California city). A freight-car ferry, Ukiah was SF&NPR's "tracks across the Bay," ferrying trains from Sausalito to San Francisco.

After WWI, Ukiah needed extensive repair, and shipwrights at the Southern Pacific yard labored for two years - eventually replacing all of her structure above the waterline. This kind of reconstruction was called "jacking up the whistle and sliding a new boat underneath."
Re-christened Eureka, the vessel was launched from the Southern Pacific yard as a passenger and automobile ferry (her present form) in 1923.

Steam Ferryboats on San Francisco Bay

The Bay's first steam ferry (the tiny Sitka) arrived in 1847, stowed aboard a Russian cargo ship. But the ferry, Kangaroo, made the first regularly scheduled crossings in 1850.

After Mexico ceded California to the United States in 1848 (and John Marshall discovered gold in the American River) the Bay Area's population exploded. It is said that San Francisco's Ferry Building was once second only to London's Charing Cross Railway Station as the busiest passenger terminal in the world.

At one time, Southern Pacific Railroad operated forty-two ferryboats on the Bay (they transported 50,000,000 passengers per year). Construction of the Bay and Golden Gate bridges (mid 1930s) signaled the end of the ferryboat era, however.

In 1941, Eureka had the dubious distinction of making the last Marin County run, and by the 1950s regular ferry service was limited to railroad connections.

Eureka kept working, but in 1957, when her crankpin snapped in mid-crossing, she was removed from service. Just one year later, the San Leandro made the last transbay ferryboat run

The Walking Beam Engine

Eureka's tall "walking beam" is the last working example of an engine-type once common on America's waterways. Manufactured by Fulton Iron Works of San Francisco, this engine remains unaltered to this day.

Oil was burned in boilers to produce the steam, which drove a huge, vertical piston. Perched atop the engine, the walking beam changed this up-and-down motion into rotary motion via a connecting rod linked directly to the paddlewheel shaft. The twin paddlewheels (each twenty-seven feet in diameter) made twenty-four revolutions per minute.

Restoration

In February of 1994, Eureka exited San Francisco Drydock after a $2.7 million restoration project. The steamship had been in the shipyard since October, where a crew of 45 skilled craftsmen caulked 2.5 miles of planking seams, and hammered in over 9000 eight-inch spikes. They applied stockholm tar, laid Irish Felt, and then plated the hull with 12,000 square feet of shining copper (cut down from modern dimensions to traditional-sized pieces to maintain the historical facade).

Ferryboat Eureka at the drydock, 1998-1999.

Contents

Eureka's Pacific coastal location on Humboldt Bay, adjacent to abundant redwood forests, provided the reason for settlement of this 19th-century seaport town. Before the arrival of Euro-American settlers, including farmers, miners, fishermen, and loggers, the area was occupied by indigenous peoples.

Native Americans Edit

The Wiyot people lived in Jaroujiji (Wiyot: "where you sit and rest"), now known as Eureka, for thousands of years before European arrival. Their traditional coastal homeland ranged from the lower Mad River through Humboldt Bay and south along the lower basin of the Eel River. The Wiyot are particularly known for their basketry and fishery management. [17] An extensive collection of intricate basketry of the area's indigenous groups exists in the Clarke Historical Museum in Old Town Eureka.

As of 2013 [update] , Eureka High School has the largest Yurok language program in California. [31]

The Wiyot and Yurok are the westernmost peoples to speak Algic languages.

Founding on Humboldt Bay Edit

For nearly 300 years after 1579, European exploration of the coast of what would become northern California repeatedly missed definitively locating Humboldt Bay because of a combination of geographic features and weather conditions which concealed the narrow bay entrance from view. Despite a well-documented 1806 sighting by Russian explorers, the bay was not definitively known by Europeans until an 1849 overland exploration provided a reliable accounting of the exact location of what is the second largest bay in California. [32] The timing of this discovery led to the May 13, 1850, founding of the settlement of Eureka on its shore by the Union and Mendocino Exploring (development) companies. [33]

Gold Rush era Edit

After the primary California Gold Rush in the Sierras, Humboldt Bay was settled with the intent of providing a convenient alternative to the long overland route from Sacramento to supply miners on the Trinity, Klamath and Salmon Rivers where gold had been discovered. Though the ideal location on Humboldt Bay adjacent to naturally deeper shipping channels ultimately guaranteed Eureka's development as the primary city on the bay, Arcata's proximity to developing supply lines to inland gold mines ensured supremacy over Eureka through 1856. [29]

"Eureka" received its name from a Greek word meaning "I have found it!" [34] [35] [36] This exuberant statement of successful (or hopeful) gold rush miners is also the official motto of the State of California. Eureka is the only U.S. location to use the same seal as the state for its seal. [37]

Wiyot Massacre Edit

The first Europeans venturing into Humboldt Bay encountered the indigenous Wiyot. After 1850, Americans ultimately overwhelmed the Wiyot, whose maximum population before the Europeans numbered in the hundreds in the area of what would become the county's primary city. But in almost every case, settlers ultimately cut off access to ancestral sources of food in addition to the outright theft of land, despite the efforts of some U.S. Government and military officials to assist the native peoples or at least maintain peace. Fort Humboldt was established by the U.S. Army on January 30, 1853, as a buffer between Native Americans, gold-seekers and settlers, commanded by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan of the U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment. [38] The 1860 Wiyot Massacre took place on Indian Island in the spring of 1860, committed by a group of locals thought to be composed primarily of Eureka businessmen. [33] (The male Wiyot tribal members had left the Island during their annual New Year ritual and the vigilantes killed as many as 250 children, women, and elderly tribal members) [39] Major Gabriel J. Rains, Commanding Officer of Fort Humboldt at the time, reported to his commanding officer that a local group of vigilantes had resolved to "kill every peaceable Indian – man, woman, and child." [40]

Lumber industry Edit

Eureka's first post office opened in 1853 [41] just as the town began to carve its grid plan into the edge of a forest it would ultimately consume to feed the building of San Francisco and points beyond. Many of the first immigrants who arrived as prospectors were also lumbermen, and the vast potential for industry on the bay was soon realized, especially as many hopeful gold miners realized the difficulty and infrequency of striking it rich in the mines. By 1854, after only four years since the founding, seven of nine mills processing timber into marketable lumber on Humboldt Bay were within Eureka. [33] A year later, 140 lumber schooners operated in and out of Humboldt Bay moving lumber from the mills to booming cities along the Pacific coast. [33] By the time the charter for Eureka was granted in 1856, busy mills inside the city had a daily production capacity of 220,000 board feet. [42] This level of production, which would grow significantly and continue for more than a century, secured Eureka as the "timber capital" of California. Eureka was at the apex of rapid growth of the lumber industry because of its location between huge coast redwood forests and its control of the primary port facilities. Loggers brought the enormous redwood trees down. Dozens of movable narrow gauge railroads brought trainloads of logs and finished lumber products to the main rail line, which led directly to Eureka's wharf and waiting schooners. By the 1880s, railroads eventually brought the production of hundreds of mills throughout the region to Eureka, primarily for shipment through its port. After the early 1900s, shipment of products occurred by trucks, trains, and ships from Eureka, Humboldt Bay, and other points in the region, but Eureka remained the busy center of all this activity for over 120 years. These factors and others made Eureka a significant city in early California state history. [ citation needed ]

Commercial center Edit

A bustling commercial district with ornate Victorian-style buildings rose in proximity to the waterfront, reflecting the great prosperity experienced during this era. Hundreds of these Victorian homes remain today, of which many are totally restored and a few have always remained in their original elegance and splendor. The representation of these homes in Eureka, grouped with those in nearby Arcata and the Victorian village of Ferndale, are of considerable importance to the overall development of Victorian architecture built in the nation. The magnificent Carson Mansion on 2nd and M Streets, is perhaps the most spectacular Victorian in the nation. The home was built between 1884 and 1886 by renowned 19th-century architects Newsom and Newsom for lumber baron William M. Carson. This project was designed to keep mill workers and expert craftsman busy during a slow period in the industry. Old Town Eureka, the original downtown center of this busy city in the 19th century, has been restored and has become a lively arts center. [43] The Old Town area has been declared an Historic District by the National Register of Historic Places. The district is made up of over 150 buildings, which in total represents much of Eureka's original 19th-century core commercial center. This nexus of culture behind the redwood curtain still contains much of its Victorian architecture, which, if not maintained for original use as commercial buildings or homes, have been transformed into scores of unique lodgings, restaurants, and small shops featuring a burgeoning cottage industry of hand-made creations, from glassware to wood-burning stoves, and a large variety of locally created art.

Fishing, shipping, and boating Edit

Eureka's founding and livelihood was and remains linked to Humboldt Bay, the Pacific Ocean, and related industries, especially fishing. Salmon fisheries sprang up along the Eel River as early as 1851, and, within seven years, 2,000 barrels of cured fish and 50,000 pounds (23,000 kg) of smoked salmon were processed and shipped out of Humboldt Bay annually from processing plants on Eureka's wharf. [ citation needed ] In 1858 the first of many ships built in Eureka was launched, beginning an industry that spanned scores of years. The bay is also the site of the West Coast's largest oyster farming operations, which began its commercial status in the nineteenth century. Eureka is the home port to more than 100 fishing vessels (with an all-time high of over 400 in 1981) in two modern marinas which can berth approximately 400 boats within the city limits [44] and at least 50 more in nearby Fields Landing, which is part of Greater Eureka. Area catches historically include, among other species, salmon, tuna, Dungeness crab, and shrimp, with historic annual total fishing landings totaling about 36,000,000 pounds (16,000,000 kg) in 1981. [42]

Chinese expulsion Edit

Rising emigration from China in the late 19th century sparked conflict between white settlers and immigrants, which ultimately led to the Chinese Exclusion Act. Economic downturns resulting in competition for jobs led to violent actions against Chinese immigrants, especially on the Pacific coast. In February 1885, the racial tension in Eureka intensified when Eureka City Councilman David Kendall was caught in the crossfire of two rival Chinese gangs and killed. This led to the convening of 600 Eureka men and resulted in the forcible permanent expulsion of all 480 Chinese residents of Eureka's Chinatown. [45]

Among those who guarded the city jail during the height of the sinophobic tension was James Gillett, who went on to become Governor of California. [46] The anti-Chinese ordinance was repealed in 1959. [45] [47]

Queen City of the Ultimate West Edit

Completion of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad in 1914 provided the local lumber industry with an alternative to ships for transport of its millions of board feet of lumber to reach markets in San Francisco and beyond. It also provided the first safe land route between San Francisco and Eureka for people to venture to the Redwood Empire. As a result, Eureka's population of 7,300 swelled to 15,000 within ten years. By 1922, the Redwood Highway was completed, providing for the first reliable, direct overland route for automobiles from San Francisco. [ citation needed ] By 1931, the Eureka Street Railway operated fifteen streetcars over twelve miles (19 km) of track. [48] Eureka's transportation connection to the "outside" world had changed dramatically after more than half a century of stage rides or treacherous steamship passage through the Humboldt Bar and on the Pacific Ocean to San Francisco. The building of the Eureka Inn coincided with the opening of the new road to San Francisco. As a result of immense civic pride during this early-20th-century era of expansion, Eureka officially nicknamed itself "Queen City of the Ultimate West." The tourism industry, lodging to support it, and related marketing had been born. [29]

Post–World War II Edit

The timber economy of Eureka is part of the Pacific Northwest timber economy which rises and falls with boom-and-bust economic times. [49] In Eureka, both the timber industry and commercial fishing declined after the Second World War. [ citation needed ]

The Columbus Day Storm of 1962 downed trees and caused a surplus in the domestic timber market, which caused increased shipping to foreign markets. The log trade with Japan and other Pacific Rim nations increased. [49] Despite many rumors to the contrary, little of this wood returned to U.S. markets. [49] In 1989, the U.S. changed log export laws, permitting lower-cost timber from public lands to be exported as raw logs overseas to help balance the federal budget. [50]

After 1990, the global log market declined, and exports fell at the same time as Pacific Northwest log prices increased leading buyers to seek less expensive logs from Canada and the southern United States. [49] However, debate continues among four stakeholders: timber owners, domestic processors, consumers and communities, on the impact of log export on the local economy. [49] [51] During the span 1991 to 2001, timber harvest peaked in 1997. [52] The local timber market was also affected by the Pacific Lumber Company hostile takeover [53] and ultimate bankruptcy. [54]

Local fisheries expanded through the 1970s and early 1980s. During the 1970s, Eureka fishermen landed more than half of the fish and shellfish produced and consumed in California. [55] In 2010 between 100 and 120 commercial fishing vessels listed Eureka as homeport. [55] The highest landings of all species were 36.9 million pounds (16.7 million kg) in 1981 while the lowest were in 2001 with 9.4 million pounds (4.3 million kg). [55]

After 1990 regulatory, economic, and other events led to a contraction of the local commercial fleet. [55] In 1991, the Woodley Island marina opened, providing docking facilities for much of Eureka's commercial and recreational fleet. [55] Many species are considered to be overfished. [55] Recreational fishing has increased over time. Fifty percent of recreational fishermen using local boats are tourists from outside the area. [55]

Commercial Pacific oyster aquaculture in Humboldt Bay produced an average of 7,600,000 pounds (3,400,000 kg) of oysters from 1956 to 1965 [55] an average of 844,444 pounds (383,033 kg) per year. In 2004, only 600,000 pounds (270,000 kg) were harvested. [55] Oysters and oyster seed continue to be exported from Humboldt Bay. [55] The value of the oysters and spawn is more than $6 million per year. [55] Consolidation of buyers and landing facilities resulted in local vulnerability to unexpected events, leading the city to obtain grant funding for and complete the Fishermen's Terminal on the waterfront which will provide fish handling, marketing, and public spaces. [55]

Significant earthquakes Edit

The area regularly experiences large earthquakes as it is situated on the southern end the Cascadia subduction zone and near the San Andreas Fault, which interface around the Mendocino Triple Junction. [56] On January 9, 2010, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake occurred about 33 miles (53 km) off shore from Eureka. [57] After two seconds, it became a violent "jumper", making objects fly [58] the mostly vertical shocks from the ground led to broken windows in shops, overturned shelving in homes and stores, and damage to architectural detail on a number of historic buildings. [57] [59] Local hospitals treated mostly minor related injuries, and electrical power was out over a large area. Numerous natural gas leaks occurred, but no fires resulted. [58] [60] This was the largest recent earthquake since the April 25–26, 1992 sequence. [61] It was followed on February 4, 2010, by a magnitude 5.9 earthquake which struck about 35 miles (56 km) northwest of the community of Petrolia and nearly 50 miles (80 km) west of Eureka. The shaking was felt within a 150-mile (240 km) radius, as far north as southern Oregon and as far south as Sonoma County. [61] [62] The largest recorded in the area was the 7.2 Mw event on November 8, 1980. [63] [64] The larger earthquakes can pose a tsunami threat to coastal areas. [65]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.5 square miles (38 km 2 ), of which 9.4 square miles (24 km 2 ) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km 2 ) or 35.07% is water.

Eureka is situated within California's Redwood Empire region which includes Pacific Ocean coast, Humboldt Bay, and several rivers in addition to Redwood National and State Parks and Humboldt Redwoods State Park. The location of Eureka on U.S. 101 is 283 miles (455 km) north of San Francisco and 315 mi (507 km) northwest of Sacramento.

The city marina is on one of three islands at a narrow point on the 13-mile-long (21 km) bay and increases in elevation slightly as it spreads north, south, and especially to the east. The city gently encroaches at least two miles (3.2 km) eastward into primarily Redwood and Douglas-fir second growth forests. The city has a traditional grid that generally radiates toward the points of the compass. Most post-1970 houses were built in formerly clear cut forested areas.

The transition between the official city limits and smaller unincorporated areas is mostly not discernible. Eastern areas including secluded developments on a golf course among or in close proximity to extensive second-growth forest have more recently developed. These new houses were built as a result of the Eureka Community Plan of 1995 in attempt to bring locals close to centers of recreation and encourage community interaction. [66] The city then gives way to hills and mountains of the rugged coast range, which quickly exceed 2,000 feet (610 m) in elevation.

Climate Edit

Eureka enjoys a mild, temperate cool-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb). Due to the influence of the Pacific Ocean, its temperatures are cooler than those of a typical Mediterranean climate. Eureka's average summer temperatures are similar to those of Sitka and the Alexander Archipelago in Alaska, Scotland and Northern Ireland in the North Atlantic, Ushuaia in Argentina, the Aysen Region in Chile, and much of Tierra del Fuego in southern South America. Winters are mild and rainy, and summers mild, cool, and dry. The average high in December, the coolest month, is 55.0 °F (12.8 °C), while the average high temperature in August, the warmest month, is 64.3 °F (17.9 °C), which is very cool and mild for an area at such a southerly latitude. The seasonal temperature variation is very small the difference between the August average of 58.5 °F (14.7 °C) and the December average of 47.8 °F (8.8 °C) is only 10.7 °F (5.9 °C), about equal to the diurnal temperature variation. In addition, Eureka has a very short and milder range of temperatures compared to most of the contiguous US, with the all-time highest and lowest temperatures recorded in Eureka being only 87 °F (30.6 °C) on October 26, 1993, September 2, 2017, [67] and September 28, 2020, [68] and 20 °F (−6.7 °C) on January 14, 1888, respectively. On average, the highest temperature seen throughout the entire year is only 79 °F (26.1 °C), one of the mildest in the contiguous US, while on average the lowest temperature seen in the year (most often occurring at night) is only a similarly moderate 29 °F (−1.7 °C), yielding a very short and mild temperature range of about 50 °F (28 °C) throughout the year. Additionally, Eureka remains the only city on the West Coast of the continental United States to have never recorded a temperature of 90 °F (32.2 °C). Temperatures drop to freezing or below only on a few nights per year, and daytime temperatures for these days are typically mild temperatures ranging between 43–58 °F (6.1–14.4 °C). NOAA’s weather station averages indicate only 0.18 in (4.6 mm) of rainfall in July, which is well within the Mediterranean range, only with cooler and milder air than a typical Mediterranean climate.

The area experiences coastal fog throughout the year, especially during summer on the coast when temperatures in the city remain consistently around a mild 64 °F (17.8 °C). This phenomenon, together with cool breezes from the Pacific Ocean, keeps Eureka relatively cool and mild, while contrasting with inland areas even just a few miles outside of Eureka, which are prone to extreme temperatures that often exceed 100 °F (37.8 °C), causing frequent temperature differences between Eureka and inland areas during summer and early fall of 30 to 40 °F (17 to 22 °C). Despite the common coastal fog, Eureka enjoys on average about 55% possible sunshine per year, about on par with cities such as Calgary, Portland, New York City and Chicago. [69] [70] [71] [72]

Annual precipitation averages 40.3 in or 1,024 mm. Measurable precipitation falls on an average of 127.5 days each year, concentrated heavily from October to April. On average, December is the wettest month, averaging over 8 in (203.2 mm) of precipitation, virtually all of it rain. The wettest "rain year" was from July 1889 to June 1890 with 73.30 in (1,861.8 mm) and the driest from July 1976 to June 1977 with 17.56 in (446.0 mm). The greatest monthly precipitation was 23.21 in (589.5 mm) in December 2002. The greatest 24-hour precipitation was 6.79 in (172.5 mm) on December 27, 2002. However, historic 100-year dramatic weather events such as the Christmas Week flood of 1955 and, especially, the Christmas flood of 1964, which severely damaged the region, may not be reflected in records listed herein. Snowfall on the coast happens only on rare occasions, averaging 0.2 in or 0.51 cm as of the 1981–2010 normals, but only five years during that period received measurable snowfall. [73] The most snowfall in one month was 6.9 in or 18 cm in January 1907.

Climate data for Eureka, California (NWS Forecast Office, Woodley Island), 1981–2010 normals, [a] extremes 1886–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 78.0
(25.6)
85.0
(29.4)
78.0
(25.6)
80.0
(26.7)
84.0
(28.9)
85.0
(29.4)
77.0
(25.0)
82.0
(27.8)
87.0
(30.6)
87.0
(30.6)
81.0
(27.2)
77.0
(25.0)
87.0
(30.6)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 67.1
(19.5)
67.8
(19.9)
67.1
(19.5)
67.7
(19.8)
71.1
(21.7)
69.8
(21.0)
70.3
(21.3)
71.5
(21.9)
73.8
(23.2)
74.9
(23.8)
68.5
(20.3)
65.2
(18.4)
78.8
(26.0)
Average high °F (°C) 55.6
(13.1)
56.1
(13.4)
56.7
(13.7)
57.7
(14.3)
60.1
(15.6)
62.2
(16.8)
63.4
(17.4)
64.3
(17.9)
63.7
(17.6)
61.7
(16.5)
58.0
(14.4)
55.0
(12.8)
59.6
(15.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 48.3
(9.1)
48.9
(9.4)
49.7
(9.8)
50.9
(10.5)
53.8
(12.1)
56.1
(13.4)
57.7
(14.3)
58.5
(14.7)
57.0
(13.9)
54.4
(12.4)
50.8
(10.4)
47.8
(8.8)
52.9
(11.6)
Average low °F (°C) 41.1
(5.1)
41.7
(5.4)
42.6
(5.9)
44.1
(6.7)
47.5
(8.6)
50.1
(10.1)
52.0
(11.1)
52.8
(11.6)
50.4
(10.2)
47.1
(8.4)
43.5
(6.4)
40.6
(4.8)
46.1
(7.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 32.8
(0.4)
33.2
(0.7)
34.6
(1.4)
37.4
(3.0)
40.9
(4.9)
45.0
(7.2)
48.5
(9.2)
49.2
(9.6)
45.0
(7.2)
39.8
(4.3)
34.3
(1.3)
31.4
(−0.3)
29.4
(−1.4)
Record low °F (°C) 20.0
(−6.7)
24.0
(−4.4)
29.0
(−1.7)
31.0
(−0.6)
35.0
(1.7)
40.0
(4.4)
43.0
(6.1)
44.0
(6.7)
36.0
(2.2)
32.0
(0.0)
27.0
(−2.8)
21.0
(−6.1)
20.0
(−6.7)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 6.50
(165)
5.63
(143)
5.30
(135)
3.32
(84)
1.78
(45)
0.75
(19)
0.18
(4.6)
0.31
(7.9)
0.59
(15)
2.24
(57)
5.61
(142)
8.12
(206)
40.33
(1,024)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0
(0)
0.2
(0.51)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.51)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 16.6 14.9 16.2 13.4 9.1 5.8 2.7 3.2 4.4 8.5 15.2 17.5 127.5
Average relative humidity (%) 82 81 82 82 83 85 87 88 85 83 83 82 84
Average dew point °F (°C) 41
(5)
41
(5)
42
(6)
43
(6)
46
(8)
50
(10)
52
(11)
53
(12)
51
(11)
48
(9)
45
(7)
41
(5)
46
(8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.1 143.7 207.4 253.1 280.5 277.7 273.4 236.5 220.3 175.8 131.3 126.2 2,466
Percent possible sunshine 47 48 56 63 63 62 60 55 59 51 44 44 55
Source 1: NOAA (sun and relative humidity 1961–1990) [73] [74] [75]
Source 2: Time and Date (humidity and dew point 2005-2015) [76]
Historical population
Census Pop.
1860612
18702,049 234.8%
18802,639 28.8%
18904,858 84.1%
19007,327 50.8%
191011,845 61.7%
192012,923 9.1%
193015,752 21.9%
194017,055 8.3%
195023,058 35.2%
196028,137 22.0%
197024,337 −13.5%
198024,153 −0.8%
199027,025 11.9%
200026,128 −3.3%
201027,191 4.1%
2019 (est.)26,710 [14] −1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [77] [78]

The population of the city was 27,191 at the 2010 census, up from 26,128 at the 2000 census, representing a 4.1% increase, and the population of Greater Eureka [24] was 45,034 [12] [21] at the 2010 Census, up from 43,452 [79] at the 2000 census, representing a 3.6% increase.

According to a report by the City of Eureka, the Greater Eureka area minimally includes the unincorporated adjacent or nearby neighborhoods and Census Defined Populated Areas of Bayview, Cutten, Elk River, Freshwater, Humboldt Hill, Indianola, Myrtletown, Pine Hill, Ridgewood Heights, and Rosewood, [80] all of which have Eureka addresses, postal zip codes and Eureka-specific telephone numbers. The Greater Eureka area makes up the largest urban settlement on the Pacific Coast between San Francisco and Portland. [24] This area is similar to what the U.S. Census officially defines as the Eureka UC (urban cluster), which is a "densely settled core of census tracts and/or census blocks that meet minimum population density requirements, along with adjacent territory containing non-residential urban land uses as well as territory with low population density included to link outlying densely settled territory with the densely settled core" of up to 50,000 in population. The bayside communities of Manila, Samoa, and Fairhaven (all on the Samoa Peninsula), and King Salmon and Fields Landing (both located south of the city), and communities listed above, with the exception of Elk River and Freshwater, are shown to be part of the Eureka Urban Cluster. [81] Eureka is the largest city of the Eureka-Arcata-Fortuna Micropolitan Area, a construct of the U.S. Census Bureau, which is synonymous with the County of Humboldt. [82]

2000 Census data Edit

As of the census [83] of 2000, there were 26,128 people. The population density was 2,764.5 people per square mile (1,067.5/km 2 ). There were 11,637 housing units at an average density of 1,231.3 per square mile (475.5/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 88.5% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 4.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, and 5.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 10.8% of the population.

There were 10,957 households, out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.8% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.3% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population dispersal was 22.4% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,849, and the median income for a family was $33,438. Males had a median income of $28,706 versus $22,038 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,174. About 15.8% of families and 23.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.1% of those 65 and older.

2010 Census data Edit

The 2010 United States Census [84] reported that Eureka had a population of 27,191. The population density was 1,881.3 people per square mile (726.4/km 2 ). The racial makeup of Eureka was 21,565 (79.3%) White, 514 (1.9%) African American, 1,011 (3.7%) Native American, 1,153 (4.2%) Asian, 176 (0.6%) Pacific Islander, 1,181 (4.3%) from other races, and 1,591 (5.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3,143 persons (11.6%).

The census reported that 25,308 people (93.1% of the population) lived in households, 1,434 (5.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 449 (1.7%) were institutionalized.

There were 11,150 households, out of which 2,891 (25.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,554 (31.9%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,449 (13.0%) had a female householder with no husband present, 710 (6.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,161 (10.4%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 146 (1.3%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,971 households (35.6%) were made up of individuals, and 1,183 (10.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27. There were 5,713 families (51.2% of all households) the average family size was 2.93.

The population dispersal was 5,431 people (20.0%) under the age of 18, 3,102 people (11.4%) aged 18 to 24, 8,021 people (29.5%) aged 25 to 44, 7,422 people (27.3%) aged 45 to 64, and 3,215 people (11.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.7 males. There were 11,891 housing units at an average density of 822.7 per square mile (317.6/km 2 ), of which 11,150 were occupied, of which 4,829 (43.3%) were owner-occupied, and 6,321 (56.7%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0% the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 11,251 people (41.4% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 14,057 people (51.7%) lived in rental housing units.

The economic base of the city was founded on timber and fishing and supplying gold mining efforts inland. Gold mining diminished quickly in the early years, and activities of timber and fishing have also diminished, especially in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Today, the major industries are tourism, timber (in value), and healthcare and services (in number of jobs). Major employers today in Eureka include the following governmental entities: College of the Redwoods, The County of Humboldt, and the Humboldt County Office of Education. St. Joseph Hospital is the largest private employer in Eureka. [85]

Local government Edit

The City of Eureka has a mayor-council system of governance. Primary power lies with the five council members, divided into five wards. The mayor has the power to appoint, as well as ceremonial duties, though the job includes presiding over council meetings and meeting visiting dignitaries. [86] Official city business is administered by the Office of the City Manager. The Eureka City Council regularly meets on the 1st and 3rd Tuesdays of the month at 5:30 pm for closed session, and 6:30 pm for open session. Open sessions are open to the public. [87]

State and federal government Edit

Transportation Edit

Land Edit

U.S. Route 101 is the major north and south highway, which connects Eureka to the rest of the North Coast region. The highway connects to Oregon, located approximately 100 miles (161 km) to the north, and San Francisco, over 250 miles (402 km) to the south. The highway follows city streets through the city, with flow and cross-traffic controlled by traffic signals. Highway 101 enters Eureka from the south as Broadway. As it reaches the downtown area, it splits into a one-way couplet composed of 4th Street and 5th Street. On the north side of the city, northbound and southbound rejoin at the northeast side before the highway becomes a restricted (safety corridor) expressway (to Arcata and points beyond) as double bridges cross the Eureka Slough (mouth of the Freshwater Creek). [88]

State Route 255 is an alternate route of U.S. 101 between Eureka and the nearby city of Arcata, running along the western shore of Humboldt Bay. It begins in the downtown area at U.S. 101 and proceeds north along R Street towards the Samoa Bridge and the community of Samoa. [88]

State Route 299 (formerly U.S. Route 299) connects to U.S. Route 101 at the northern end of Arcata. Route 299 begins at that point and extends easterly to serve as the major traffic artery to the east for Eureka. [88]

Air Edit

Eureka's full-service airport is the Arcata-Eureka Airport, located 15 miles (24 km) north in McKinleyville. This airport has one airline, United Airlines, and connects to San Francisco and Los Angeles. Murray Field and Eureka Municipal Airport are general aviation airports for private and charter air service. Both are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay. Kneeland Airport, at 2,737 feet (834 m) in elevation, is a general aviation airport that provides an option for pilots choosing to land when the prevalent marine layer is affecting airports nearer sea level. [89]

Water Edit

The Humboldt Bay Harbor Recreation & Conservation District manages the resources of Humboldt Bay and its environs, including the deep-water port. The port is located directly west of the city and is serviced across the bay in the community of Samoa. In addition to two deep-water channel docks for large ships, several modern small-craft marinas are available for private use, with a total capacity of more than 400 boats. [90]

Bus service Edit

Public bus transportation services within Eureka are provided by the Eureka Transit Service. The Redwood Transit System provides bus transportation through Eureka and connects to major towns and places outside the city, including educational institutions. Dial-A-Ride service is available through an application process.

Amtrak provides Thruway Bus service to Eureka at its unstaffed bus stop. The bus service connects passengers from the northernmost coastal train station in Martinez, California, and continues to southern Oregon.

Greyhound provides bus service to San Francisco from Eureka. Tickets may be purchased online or at the nearest full-service station in Arcata.

Utilities Edit

Electricity and natural gas Edit

Eureka residents are served by Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Some reserves of natural gas are located south of the city. These and other fuels help power the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (which includes the defunct Humboldt Bay Nuclear Power Plant). In 2010, the cogeneration plant increased its capacity from 130 MW to 163 MW. [91]

Water Edit

The City of Eureka is the largest of the local water districts supplied by the Humboldt Bay Municipal Water District. The entire region is one of the few places in California that has historically enjoyed a significant surplus of water. [92] The reduction in major forest products manufacturing in recent decades has left the area with a 45 MGD surplus of industrial water. [93]

Healthcare Edit

Eureka is the regional center for healthcare. The city is served by St. Joseph Hospital, which is the largest medical acute care hospital north of the San Francisco Bay Area on the California Coast. The hospital was first opened in 1920 and was operated by the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Orange until 2016. The facility is composed of two parts: a main campus contains the acute care facility and a nearby second site, the former General Hospital Campus, which contains a rehabilitation facility and a skilled nursing site.

In November 2012, the hospital completed required earthquake safety standards upgrades. The new primary wing contains surgical suites, intensive care, 24-hour emergency care, as well as new and enlarged patient rooms for those requiring care beyond short stay or outpatient procedures, assisted living facilities, skilled nursing facilities, surgery centers, and radiology (including MRI) facilities. [ citation needed ]

In June 2016, the California Attorney General's office approved merging the St. Joseph Health system and the Providence Health and Services which includes St. Joseph's in Eureka, making it part of the third-largest non-profit health system in the nation. [94] The merger raises local and regional concerns about health care. [95]

Eureka is also the site of the only comprehensive private and county-operated mental health emergency and hospitalization facilities north of San Francisco within California. Most of the doctors for the many medical specialties available on the far North Coast are located in or near Eureka, which also has the only oncology program and dialysis clinic in the region. [ citation needed ]

Institutions of higher learning include the College of the Redwoods and Humboldt State University in Arcata. College of the Redwoods manages a downtown satellite campus as well.

Eureka City Schools, the largest school district in the region, administers the public schools of the city. Eureka High School receives all students from city grammar schools as well as all those from nearby unincorporated communities. Specific schools include: Alice Birney Elementary, Grant Elementary, Lafayette Elementary, Washington Elementary, Winship Middle School, Zane Middle School, Eureka High School, Humboldt Bay High School, Zoe Barnum High School, the Eureka Adult School, and Winzler Children's Center. The district offices are located in the remodeled Marshall School, which also contains the Marshall Family Resource Center, a site designed to offer programs in support of parents and families. [96]

The North Coast's primary shopping facility, the Bayshore Mall, is the largest north of the San Francisco Bay Area on the California coast. The mall features over 70 stores, which is anchored by Kohl's and Walmart. TJ Maxx and Ulta opened in 2013. Other major shopping areas and centers include Henderson Center, the Eureka Mall, Burre Center, and Downtown and Old Town Eureka. [ citation needed ]

Eureka is one of California's historic landmarks. The California State Historical marker, #477, designating Eureka, is located in Old Town, one of the nation's best-preserved original Victorian-era commercial districts. [99] The city was voted as the No. 1 best small art town in John Villani's book The 100 Best Small Art Towns in America. [100] Eureka hosts the region's largest monthly cultural and arts event, "Arts' Alive!" on the first Saturday of each month. [101] More than 80 Eureka business and local galleries open their doors to the public. [101] Often local cuisine and beverages accompany live performances by acclaimed regional bands and other types of performance art. [101] The downtown Eureka area is also decorated with many murals. [102]

Theater offerings include year-round productions from several various theater groups, including the North Coast Repertory Theater, the Redwood Curtain Theatre, and the Eureka Theater. Various events occur throughout the year at the Redwood Acres Fairgrounds. [103] Museums include the Clarke Historical Museum, the Humboldt Bay Maritime Museum, the Morris Graves Museum of Art, HSU First Street Gallery, Discovery Museum for Children, the Fort Humboldt State Historic Park and the Blue Ox Millworks and Historic Park.

Annual cultural events Edit

  • Redwood Coast Music Festival – May [104]
  • Perilous Plunge – March [105]
  • Rhododendron Festival – April [106] – May
  • Redwood Acres Fair and Rodeo – June [107]
  • Humboldt Wood Fair – June [108]
  • Summer Concert Series on the Boardwalk – June – August [109]
  • Fourth of July Celebration – July [110]
  • Humboldt Bay Full of Blues – August 30 & 31, 2014 [111]
  • Chicken Wingfest – September [112]
  • Excalibur Medieval Tournament and Market Faire – September [113]
  • Pride Parade and Celebration – September [114]
  • Humboldt Bay Paddle Fest – September [115]
  • Craftsman's Days – November [116]
  • Christmas Truckers Parade – December [117]

Museums and galleries Edit

Architecture Edit

Because of northern isolation and unfavorable economic conditions in the latter part of the twentieth century, much of the post-war redevelopment and urban renewal that other cities experienced did not occur in Eureka. As a result, Eureka has hundreds of examples of 19th- and early-20th-century architecture and historic districts.

The original Queen Anne-style Murphy home in San Francisco was completely destroyed by the fire resulting from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. [118] Mark Carter found the blueprints for the home in an antique store and rebuilt the structure, but in Eureka it is now the Carter House Inn. [119]

Approximately 16% of the city's structures are cataloged as important historical structures, with many of those attaining the status of state and national significance in terms of a particular structure's importance in relationship to the body of surviving examples of the architectural style attributed to its construction and related detail. [ citation needed ] Thirteen distinct districts have been identified which meet the criteria for the National Register of Historic Places. Among them are the 2nd Street District (10 buildings), 15th Street district (13 buildings) and the O Street district (43 buildings). Hillsdale Street, a popular and well-preserved district, contains 17 buildings of historic interest. In all, some 1,500 buildings have been recognized as qualifying for the National Register. The Eureka Heritage Society, a local architectural preservation group founded in 1973, has been instrumental in protecting and preserving many of Eureka's fine Victorians. [ citation needed ]

Sequoia Park Zoo, situated on more than 67 acres (270,000 m 2 ) of mature second-growth Redwood forest, includes Eureka's largest public playground and a duck pond, in addition to gardens and examples of the area's many varieties of rhododendron bushes. The City of Eureka Recreation Department manages 13 playgrounds, including Cooper Gulch, which is 33 acres (13 ha), and many ball fields as well as tennis courts and others, including basketball and soccer. Other parks in or near Eureka include the Humboldt Botanical Garden and the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, and the Eureka Marsh, an accessible protected marsh between the Bayshore Mall and Humboldt Bay. There is a modern boardwalk along the city's waterfront. [120]

Though Eureka has been the base for two major daily newspapers at different times in its 150 years, only the Times-Standard, owned by the Colorado-based Media News Group, survives. Media News Group also owns a weekly classified advertiser, the Tri-City Weekly. [121] The Eureka Reporter, founded in 2003, became a daily in 2006, began publishing five days per week at the end of 2007, and permanently closed in November 2008. [122] The Times-Standard printed nearly 20,000 papers per day as of 2004 [123] as of 2018, its distribution was 13,000 and it published online-only on Mondays. [124] The LostCoast Outpost is another web based news source

The North Coast Journal, a regional weekly, moved from Arcata to Eureka in 2009. Eureka is also home to several alternative weekly publications. Senior News [125] is a 24-page monthly newspaper distributed along a 150-mile (240 km) stretch of the Northwest California coast, published by the Humboldt Senior Resource Center since 1981. The small staff is augmented by community volunteer writers and by senior volunteers who distribute 5,000 free newspapers to more than 100 locations from Crescent City to Garberville.

Many of Humboldt County's commercial radio stations are based in Eureka: KINS-FM (106.3), [126] KWSW (980 AM), [127] and KEKA-FM (101.5), [128] owned and operated by Eureka Broadcasting Co. Inc. KFMI, KRED, KJNY and KATA. Lost Coast Communications owns and operates several stations broadcasting to Eureka: KSLG-FM, KHUM, KLGE, and KWPT. Eureka also hosts KMUE, the local repeater for Redway-based community radio station KMUD. On August 26, 2006, the Blue Ox Millworks launched KKDS-LP, a low power FM station focused on youth and community issues. On November 3, 2008, a low-power part 15 AM radio station, Old Glory Radio 1650 AM, [129] based in the Myrtletown neighborhood of Eureka, went on the air it offers the area's only daily live local call-in program in the morning. KHSU, the region's local public radio station, is broadcast from Humboldt State University in Arcata. A traveler's information station owned by the State of California, KMKE-LP, operates at 98.1 MHz. [130]


Watch the video: The life and death of Archimedes (July 2022).


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