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Who was the shepherd that discovered the Gobekli Tepe?

Who was the shepherd that discovered the Gobekli Tepe?


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I was watching a National Geographic documentary about the famous "Göbekli Tepe". In many of the articles and in the documentary - they say it was discovered by "a shepherd" or "the shepherd" or "the old shepherd".

I did some google searches with "shepherd" + "gobekli tepe" and didn't manage to know the name yet?

So does the shepard have a name or other identifier? What group/tribe did he belong to?

Wikipedia does not mention the shepherd:

"In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, now of the German Archaeological Institute, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to dig, leading a team of his own. He reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area, found the Chicago researchers' brief description of Göbekli Tepe, and decided to give it another look. With his knowledge of comparable objects at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were parts of T-shaped pillars." Wikipedia


A page from www.ancient-code.com shows up in a Google search for "Gobekli Tepe shepherd", but won't display for me (at least not right now). However it states in the search blurb:

It was an old Kurdish shepherd named Savak Yildiz who discovered Göbekli Tepe in October 1994 when, spotting something, he brushed away the dust to expose a large oblong-shaped stone.

Update:
Remembered how to invoke the cached page.

Here's a picture of Savak Yildiz from Mail Online.


The Mystery of Gobekli Tepe

After Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden, what happened to them? We know that sin, having entered the world, spread quickly and the first murder occurred in a fit of jealousy. Adam and Eve’s son Cain killed Abel when God preferred Abel’s offering over Cain’s. (Gen 4:3-5)

People who are unsaved and therefore an enemy of God say it’s “not fair” that God didn’t accept Cain’s offering. However, Adam and Eve knew God and continued to worship Him after being expelled from the Garden. When Eve bore Cain she praised the LORD. (Gen 4:1). They taught their sons how to worship. If they hadn’t, Abel would not have known God, would not have known that he should make an offering, and not have known that offering should be a blood sacrifice. The problem was that Cain did not offer his sacrifice in faith. “By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he had witness borne to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness in respect of his gifts: and through it he being dead yet speaketh” (Hebrews 11:4).” If you’re not offering to God by faith, it is by self, or by sight, and therefore is from your own presumption. That never pleases God.

After Cain killed Adam, God sent Cain away. “So Cain went out from the LORD’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.” (Genesis 4:16) Soon, Seth was born to Adam and Eve. So here we have a split, the believers dwelling somewhere presumably close to where Eden was, and Cain going east, marrying and having children away from the LORD’S presence. But where were they? It is believed the Garden of Eden was somewhere in Turkey. Are there any other remnants of those earliest people? Didn’t they leave anything behind?

In 1994, a Kurdish shepherd stumbled over a stone. German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt was called in and an extraordinary site was slowly uncovered over the decade. The world’s first temple, 11,000 years old. It is more enigmatic than Easter Island and more mysterious and complex than Stonehenge. It is universally agreed that it is one of the most important sites in the world. It is seven thousand years older than the Great Pyramid of Giza. “As Reading University professor Steve Mithen says: ‘Gobekli Tepe is too extraordinary for my mind to understand.’ If this place they unearthed is as old as they say, it survived the Flood.

UK Daily Mail says the temple stones at Gobekli Tepe might be the greatest archaeological discovery ever, “a site that has revolutionised the way we look at human history, the origin of religion – and perhaps even the truth behind the Garden of Eden. Nat Geo says, “We used to think agriculture gave rise to cities and later to writing, art, and religion. Now the world’s oldest temple suggests the urge to worship sparked civilization.”

Previously every archaeological and sociological construct was predicated on the assumption that agriculture came first, then worship. Gobekli Tempe shows that assumption to be wrong: worship came first, and a lot earlier than they thought. Then agriculture was born in that very area. We know that wheat was the oldest and likely first domesticated grain, and it happened in that area of Turkey. “And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy lifeThorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee and thou shalt eat the herb of the field” (Genesis 3:17-18). And agriculture was born.

As for worship versus agriculture, Christians know worship came first. Our loving God created humans, who in turn worshiped Him in perfection and without sin was among the very first acts of humankind. Christians know that ‘civilization’ was created by God. He made the world, made humans and animals. He structured the world through a hierarchy of relational commands: worship of Him, hierarchy between man and woman, and of man over the animals. He gave them jobs to do. He recreated with them. Food was abundant and available. From the sixth day, all the elements of civilization existed: worship, employment, leisure, the foundational structure of the world: family unit, were all set in one day. It did not evolve and it did not progress. It simply was. (Gen 2:15-25).

Yes, but the urge to worship who? The God of Creation? Adam and Eve and their progeny worshiped God personally. Cain was away from the LORD’S presence, but perhaps he worshiped the serpent now. Were he and his people beginning to worship but worship something other than God, using advanced skills learned from the fallen angels to build a blasphemous temple? The UK Daily Mail article says “It’s as if the gods came down from heaven and built Gobekli for themselves.” Ah! Perhaps that is a clue.

Around 8,000 BC, the creators of Gobekli turned on their achievement and entombed their glorious temple under thousands of tons of earth, creating the artificial hills on which that Kurdish shepherd walked in 1994. We don’t know why. Perhaps the flood buried it. Or perhaps it was because another, ‘better’ city was being built, this time, by Nimrod. Its name is Babylon.
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Updated: 11:10 BST, 5 March 2009

For the old Kurdish shepherd, it was just another burning hot day in the rolling plains of eastern Turkey. Following his flock over the arid hillsides, he passed the single mulberry tree, which the locals regarded as 'sacred'. The bells on his sheep tinkled in the stillness. Then he spotted something. Crouching down, he brushed away the dust, and exposed a strange, large, oblong stone.

The man looked left and right: there were similar stone rectangles, peeping from the sands. Calling his dog to heel, the shepherd resolved to inform someone of his finds when he got back to the village. Maybe the stones were important.

They certainly were important. The solitary Kurdish man, on that summer's day in 1994, had made the greatest archaeological discovery in 50 years. Others would say he'd made the greatest archaeological discovery ever : a site that has revolutionised the way we look at human history, the origin of religion - and perhaps even the truth behind the Garden of Eden.

The site has been described as 'extraordinary' and 'the most important' site in the world

A few weeks after his discovery, news of the shepherd's find reached museum curators in the ancient city of Sanliurfa, ten miles south-west of the stones.

They got in touch with the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul. And so, in late 1994, archaeologist Klaus Schmidt came to the site of Gobekli Tepe (pronounced Go-beckly Tepp-ay) to begin his excavations.

As he puts it: 'As soon as I got there and saw the stones, I knew that if I didn't walk away immediately I would be here for the rest of my life.'

Remarkable: The intricate carvings were done by humans who had not mastered language or other basic skills

Schmidt stayed. And what he has uncovered is astonishing. Archaeologists worldwide are in rare agreement on the site's importance. 'Gobekli Tepe changes everything,' says Ian Hodder, at Stanford University.

David Lewis-Williams, professor of archaeology at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, says: 'Gobekli Tepe is the most important archaeological site in the world.'

Some go even further and say the site and its implications are incredible. As Reading University professor Steve Mithen says: 'Gobekli Tepe is too extraordinary for my mind to understand.'

So what is it that has energised and astounded the sober world of academia?

The site of Gobekli Tepe is simple enough to describe. The oblong stones, unearthed by the shepherd, turned out to be the flat tops of awesome, T-shaped megaliths. Imagine carved and slender versions of the stones of Avebury or Stonehenge.

Most of these standing stones are inscribed with bizarre and delicate images - mainly of boars and ducks, of hunting and game. Sinuous serpents are another common motif. Some of the megaliths show crayfish or lions.

The stones seem to represent human forms - some have stylised 'arms', which angle down the sides. Functionally, the site appears to be a temple, or ritual site, like the stone circles of Western Europe.

To date, 45 of these stones have been dug out - they are arranged in circles from five to ten yards across - but there are indications that much more is to come. Geomagnetic surveys imply that there are hundreds more standing stones, just waiting to be excavated.

So far, so remarkable. If Gobekli Tepe was simply this, it would already be a dazzling site - a Turkish Stonehenge. But several unique factors lift Gobekli Tepe into the archaeological stratosphere - and the realms of the fantastical.

The Garden of Eden come to life: Is Gobekli Tepe where the story began?

The first is its staggering age. Carbon-dating shows that the complex is at least 12,000 years old, maybe even 13,000 years old.

That means it was built around 10,000BC. By comparison, Stonehenge was built in 3,000 BC and the pyramids of Giza in 2,500 BC.

Gobekli is thus the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin. It is so old that it predates settled human life. It is pre-pottery, pre-writing, pre-everything. Gobekli hails from a part of human history that is unimaginably distant, right back in our hunter-gatherer past.

How did cavemen build something so ambitious? Schmidt speculates that bands of hunters would have gathered sporadically at the site, through the decades of construction, living in animal-skin tents, slaughtering local game for food.

The many flint arrowheads found around Gobekli support this thesis they also support the dating of the site.

This revelation, that Stone Age hunter-gatherers could have built something like Gobekli, is worldchanging, for it shows that the old hunter-gatherer life, in this region of Turkey, was far more advanced than we ever conceived - almost unbelievably sophisticated.

The shepherd who discovered Gobekli Tepe has 'changed everything', said one academic

It's as if the gods came down from heaven and built Gobekli for themselves.

This is where we come to the biblical connection, and my own involvement in the Gobekli Tepe story.

About three years ago, intrigued by the first scant details of the site, I flew out to Gobekli. It was a long, wearying journey, but more than worth it, not least as it would later provide the backdrop for a new novel I have written.

Back then, on the day I arrived at the dig, the archaeologists were unearthing mind-blowing artworks. As these sculptures were revealed, I realised that I was among the first people to see them since the end of the Ice Age.

And that's when a tantalising possibility arose. Over glasses of black tea, served in tents right next to the megaliths, Klaus Schmidt told me that, as he put it: 'Gobekli Tepe is not the Garden of Eden: it is a temple in Eden.'

To understand how a respected academic like Schmidt can make such a dizzying claim, you need to know that many scholars view the Eden story as folk-memory, or allegory.

Seen in this way, the Eden story, in Genesis, tells us of humanity's innocent and leisured hunter-gatherer past, when we could pluck fruit from the trees, scoop fish from the rivers and spend the rest of our days in pleasure.

But then we 'fell' into the harsher life of farming, with its ceaseless toil and daily grind. And we know primitive farming was harsh, compared to the relative indolence of hunting, because of the archaeological evidence.

To date, archaeologists have dug 45 stones out of the ruins at Gobekli

When people make the transition from hunter-gathering to settled agriculture, their skeletons change - they temporarily grow smaller and less healthy as the human body adapts to a diet poorer in protein and a more wearisome lifestyle. Likewise, newly domesticated animals get scrawnier.

This begs the question, why adopt farming at all? Many theories have been suggested - from tribal competition, to population pressures, to the extinction of wild animal species. But Schmidt believes that the temple of Gobekli reveals another possible cause.

'To build such a place as this, the hunters must have joined together in numbers. After they finished building, they probably congregated for worship. But then they found that they couldn't feed so many people with regular hunting and gathering.

'So I think they began cultivating the wild grasses on the hills. Religion motivated people to take up farming.'

The reason such theories have special weight is that the move to farming first happened in this same region. These rolling Anatolian plains were the cradle of agriculture.

The world's first farmyard pigs were domesticated at Cayonu, just 60 miles away. Sheep, cattle and goats were also first domesticated in eastern Turkey. Worldwide wheat species descend from einkorn wheat - first cultivated on the hills near Gobekli. Other domestic cereals - such as rye and oats - also started here.

The stones unearthed by the shepherd turned out to be the flat tops of T-shaped megaliths

But there was a problem for these early farmers, and it wasn't just that they had adopted a tougher, if ultimately more productive, lifestyle. They also experienced an ecological crisis. These days the landscape surrounding the eerie stones of Gobekli is arid and barren, but it was not always thus. As the carvings on the stones show - and as archaeological remains reveal - this was once a richly pastoral region.

There were herds of game, rivers of fish, and flocks of wildfowl lush green meadows were ringed by woods and wild orchards. About 10,000 years ago, the Kurdish desert was a 'paradisiacal place', as Schmidt puts it. So what destroyed the environment? The answer is Man.

As we began farming, we changed the landscape and the climate. When the trees were chopped down, the soil leached away all that ploughing and reaping left the land eroded and bare. What was once an agreeable oasis became a land of stress, toil and diminishing returns.

And so, paradise was lost. Adam the hunter was forced out of his glorious Eden, 'to till the earth from whence he was taken' - as the Bible puts it.

Of course, these theories might be dismissed as speculations. Yet there is plenty of historical evidence to show that the writers of the Bible, when talking of Eden, were, indeed, describing this corner of Kurdish Turkey.

Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt poses next to some of the carvings at Gebekli

In the Book of Genesis, it is indicated that Eden is west of Assyria. Sure enough, this is where Gobekli is sited.

Likewise, biblical Eden is by four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates. And Gobekli lies between both of these.

In ancient Assyrian texts, there is mention of a 'Beth Eden' - a house of Eden. This minor kingdom was 50 miles from Gobekli Tepe.

Another book in the Old Testament talks of 'the children of Eden which were in Thelasar', a town in northern Syria, near Gobekli.

The very word 'Eden' comes from the Sumerian for 'plain' Gobekli lies on the plains of Harran.

Thus, when you put it all together, the evidence is persuasive. Gobekli Tepe is, indeed, a 'temple in Eden', built by our leisured and fortunate ancestors - people who had time to cultivate art, architecture and complex ritual, before the traumas of agriculture ruined their lifestyle, and devastated their paradise.

It's a stunning and seductive idea. Yet it has a sinister epilogue. Because the loss of paradise seems to have had a strange and darkening effect on the human mind.

Many of Gobekli's standing stones are inscribed with 'bizarre and delicate' images, like this reptile

A few years ago, archaeologists at nearby Cayonu unearthed a hoard of human skulls. They were found under an altar-like slab, stained with human blood.

No one is sure, but this may be the earliest evidence for human sacrifice: one of the most inexplicable of human behaviours and one that could have evolved only in the face of terrible societal stress.

Experts may argue over the evidence at Cayonu. But what no one denies is that human sacrifice took place in this region, spreading to Palestine, Canaan and Israel.

Archaeological evidence suggests that victims were killed in huge death pits, children were buried alive in jars, others roasted in vast bronze bowls.

These are almost incomprehensible acts, unless you understand that the people had learned to fear their gods, having been cast out of paradise. So they sought to propitiate the angry heavens.

This savagery may, indeed, hold the key to one final, bewildering mystery. The astonishing stones and friezes of Gobekli Tepe are preserved intact for a bizarre reason.

Long ago, the site was deliberately and systematically buried in a feat of labour every bit as remarkable as the stone carvings.

Giant: The stones of Gobekli Tepe are huge and are generally thought to form part of the world's oldest religious site

Around 8,000 BC, the creators of Gobekli turned on their achievement and entombed their glorious temple under thousands of tons of earth, creating the artificial hills on which that Kurdish shepherd walked in 1994.

No one knows why Gobekli was buried. Maybe it was interred as a kind of penance: a sacrifice to the angry gods, who had cast the hunters out of paradise. Perhaps it was for shame at the violence and bloodshed that the stone-worship had helped provoke.

Whatever the answer, the parallels with our own era are stark. As we contemplate a new age of ecological turbulence, maybe the silent, sombre, 12,000-year-old stones of Gobekli Tepe are trying to speak to us, to warn us, as they stare across the first Eden we destroyed.


Oldest Depictions of the ‘Handbag’

One of the earliest instances of the handbag motif can be seen in the ruins of Göbekli Tepe, located at the top of a mountain ridge in southeastern Turkey. Dating back to approximately 11,000 BC, Göbekli Tepe is one of the oldest temple complexes ever discovered (Tinfoil Hat, 2014). The exact purpose of the mountain sanctuary is unknown however, it appears that temple may have served as a site for religious sacrifices (archaeologists unearthed many butchered animal bones). The walls and pillars of the temple are decorated with finely carved animals, gods, and mythical creatures, perhaps in an effort to portray the many different creations of the cosmos. Amidst these other carvings are three handbags.

Experts believe that early religions worshiped the fundamental elements of life on earth. Therefore, “the three Göbekli Tepe handbags, taken as an early form of those icons, could be said to symbolically define the site as a temple” (Scranton, 2016).

Pillar 43 from Gobekli Tepe in Turkey shows three ‘handbag’ carvings along the top. Credit: Alistair Coombs


Carving a Comet Impact?

Just a handful of the giant circular and oval rooms at Gobekli Tepe have been excavated so far, but surveys show many more are still buried underground at the site. Each of these round rooms is defined by a ring of hulking T-shaped pillars.

Most of the pillars feature ornate carvings of animals, like snakes, foxes, wild boars, birds, and other critters. Individual rooms also usually have one particular animal as its theme, which is why researchers suggested that the ancient hunter-gatherers were so-called animalists. They believed all living creatures had spirits, and they worshiped them.

Although many of the pillars focus on just a single animal, other carvings combine their art into a more complex motif. Gobekli Tepe’s Pillar 43 is the most prominent of these. This captivating pillar appears to feature a large vulture, other birds, a scorpion, and additional abstract symbols.

“We don’t know what the meanings of these symbols are,” Schmidt said, but he suggested they might depict architectural buildings.

Whatever their meaning, archaeologists say the carvings are masterful reliefs repeated many times over, implying the work of trained craftsman who not only knew what the animals were supposed to look like, but also had the technical ability to recreate them.

Although Pillar 43 remains a mystery, Klaus’ team believes that one thing is clear about the pillars in general: They were built in a T-shape as a kind of stylized human form, like a person without a head. (Some others have even gone as far as to suggest the people who worshiped at the temple were a kind of skull cult, like later peoples in the region who removed heads from buried bodies to employ them in rituals.)

“This T-form is really some unique phenomenon of this culture of Gobekli Tepe and the surrounding settlements, and it’s not repeated anywhere else on our Earth and in any other culture,” Schmidt said at a Gobekli Tepe research symposium in 2012. So, unlocking their meaning could help explain the entire site.

And although the archaeologists who have spent decades excavating Gobekli Tepe may not be willing to make bold speculations about the original meaning of Pillar 43, that hasn’t stopped others.

In 2017, a pair of chemical engineers made global headlines when they claimed that they were able to connect animal carvings on Gobekli Tepe’s pillars to the positions of various groups of stars in Earth’s sky many millennia ago.

In a paper published in the journal Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry , they argue that the so-called Vulture Stone carved on Pillar 43 is a “date stamp” for a catastrophic comet strike 13,000 years ago. This idea gained a lot of attention because scientists already suspected a comet struck Greenland around this time, potentially triggering the Younger Dryas period.

“It appears Gobekli Tepe was, among other things, an observatory for monitoring the night sky,” Martin Sweatman, a chemical engineer at the University of Edinburgh and the study's lead author, said in a media release. “One of its pillars seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event — probably the worst day in history since the end of the Ice Age.”

But again, the team of archaeologists who are actually excavating Gobekli Tepe aren’t buying it.

"Assuming such a long tradition of knowledge relating to an unconfirmed (ancient) cosmic event appears extremely far-fetched," the authors said in their rebuttal. "The assumption that asterisms [familiar star patterns] are stable across time and cultures is not convincing," they added. "It is highly unlikely that early Neolithic hunters in Upper Mesopotamia recognized the exact same celestial constellations as described by ancient Egyptian, Arabian, and Greek scholars, which still populate our imagination today."


Gobekli Tepe – History and Significance

For centuries, archeologists and historians alike reasoned that the origins of human civilization and settlement communities started primarily with the birth of agriculture and animal husbandry. However, this idea got reviewed upon the discovery of massive T-shaped pillars that were arranged in a circular manner at a site called “Göbekli Tepe” (Turkish for “hills on a navel” or “Potbelly Hill”).

Considering how marvelous and enormous the pillars of Göbekli Tepe are, the question on everyone’s minds is that: how on earth did a culture – a culture that predates the invention of the wheel, pottery and writing – construct Gobekli Tepe? And exactly how old is the site? Besides, what was Göbekli Tepe used for by Stone Age men? Answers to these questions about Göbekli Tepe have been comprehensively answered below.

What is Göbekli Tepe?

Gobekli Tepe is an enormous, prehistoric temple located in Turkey. The complex was constructed in circular format with a number of stones. And on these stone pillars are the carvings of several animals such as vultures, lions, ducks, scorpions, etc.

Archaeologists have estimated that some of those stones weigh up to a whopping 10-16 tons. That is pretty impressive considering the fact that it was constructed by prehistoric humans.

Built by an incredibly religious set of hunter-gatherers, Göbekli Tepe holds the singular honor of being the world’s oldest known temple.

When and where was it discovered?

The sheer age and size of Gobekli Tepe is absolutely mind boggling. This is exactly the reason why the discovery of it in 1994 changed everything that we know about prehistoric civilizations.

The discovery was made close to Orencik Village. This site is about 22 km from Şanlıurfa, which is in turn located in the multicultural southeastern part of Turkey.

Archeologists and scholars know for a fact that as at the time that the temple was being put up, humans did not even have agriculture. In fact, the construction of the temple is what actually gave rise to agriculture. The culture back then was basically a hunter-gatherer one – a pre-agricultural society. They must have lived in slightly organized communities, conducting their daily activities with tools made out of stones, and their way of life would have been slightly different from any known agrarian historical communities.

Who discovered Gobekli Tepe?

Klaus Schmidt (1953-2014) was the archaeologist who first discovered Göbekli Tepe

The discovery was made 1994 by a German archaeologist named Klaus Schmidt (from the German Archeological Institute in Istanbul). At first sighting of the site, Klaus knew that he was on to something big – a kind of discovery that would rival momentous ones like the discovery of King Tut’s tomb in 1922.

Prior to the German archeologist embarking on what can only be termed as the discovery of the century, a group of archaeologists from the University of Chicago and Istanbul in the 1960s scratched the surface of the site. However, they thought little about it by quickly relegating it to some Dark Ages burial ground. The archaeologists simply disregarded it. Thankfully, three decades later, Klaus Schmidt did the exact opposite by digging farther.

When was Gobekli Tepe Built?

If you thought the pyramids built by the ancient Egyptians are old, wait until you hear how old Gobekli Tepe is. Many estimates from Radiocarbon dating put the construction date of this temple round about the 10 th or 11 th millennia BCE. At the age of 12,000 years, Gobekli Tepe makes the Great Pyramid of Giza look like a futuristic construction. The Stonehenge, which was built around 3000 BCE, is at least 7000 years younger than Gobekli Tepe.

As at the time that Gobekli Tepe was constructed, humans had yet to invent writing. It would take us (that is the Mesopotamians – the Sumerians) about 9,000 years before we invented the first form of writing – the Cuneiform Writing. Our generation today is much closer to ancient Mesopotamia than Gobekli Tepe is to the Mesopotamians.

The above lead us to next question: How on earth did a prehistoric civilization from about 12,000 years ago manage to put up such massive architectural complex?

Spectacular carvings on the T-shaped pillars at Gobekli Tepe

How was Göbekli Tepe Constructed?

With obelisks and pillars of about 18 feet tall and weighing 16 tons (in some cases 40 tons), the hunters and gatherers must have required a lot of manpower to put up the Gobekli Tepe.

Another mind boggling thing is the fact that the wheel was not invented by then. Therefore, carrying those pillars would have needed a whole lot of organization and human resources.

To this day, archeologists cannot confidently put a finger on how those stone pillars were carried to the site. Bearing in mind that those workers only had stone tools at their disposal, we cannot help but revel in the sheer magnificence of those structures.

Why was it built?

The archeologist who discovered the site, Klaus Schmidt, proposes that Gobekli Tepe was built primarily as a religious temple. Schmidt believes that the lack of any household items and dwelling on site supports this claim. So far, the consensus is that the nomadic hunter-gatherers used the place as some sort of religious burial grounds, perhaps to offer sacrifices or prayers to their gods.

It is also likely that this cult for dead was a famous meeting place where feasts and religious celebrations took place. For example, the marks on the animal remains at the site suggest that these people ate hunted wild animals such as boar and gazelles. They also survived by feasting on sheep, red deer, ducks, and cranes.

Owing to their hunter-gathering lifestyle, they did not rear any of those wild animals. And perhaps those animals or their bones were used during their religious rituals.

Archeologists also discovered big stone jars – jars capable of storing some form of liquid (up to 40 gallons), intoxicating liquid perhaps. Therefore, one might not be wrong to suggest that this nomadic prehistoric culture must have had quite huge feats with lots of drinking and merry making.

What was its significance?

Another possible usage of the place might have been as a pilgrimage site. Some archeologists suggest that Gobekli Tepe was perhaps the most famous destination for pilgrims from surrounding areas, as well as from places across present-day Syria, Iraq and Iran. Schmidt believes that prehistoric and pre-dynastic dwellers from Egypt most likely visited the site to conduct a host of religious rituals. These prehistoric societies would most probable have engaged in one form of knowledge sharing or the other. Therefore, not only was Gobeklitepe a religious hub, it was also an epicenter for the dissemination of Stone Age cultural, scientific and architectural ideas.

The depiction of the gods with hands and arms got Schmidt thinking. The archeologist believes that Göbekli Tepe offers a rare glimpse into how the cave dwellers of the Stone Age perceived their gods. They must have viewed their gods as makers and doers, hence the apparent lack of faces or eyes on the images carved into the stones.

How Important is Gobekli Tepe today?

The significance of the discovery is huge. As a result of the discovery archeologist can now confidently say so many things about the beginning of human civilizations. The site offers a rich glimpse into how life was like during the Stone Age. Based on such insights, as well as more that are yet to come, we can now confidently say that beginning of human civilizations did not start with agriculture.

Gobekli Tepe shows us that we have for a long period gravely underestimated the capabilities of prehistoric men. Until its discovery, very few people would have had the idea that cave men were capable of organizing themselves into a primitive community and accomplish such massive architectural feat.

At the end of the day, Gobekli Tepe teaches us that spirituality lies deep in the genetic makeup of our being. It was spirituality that ultimately gave rise to the construction of religious temples, then primitive groups, then communities, and finally, well-functioning agriculture societies such as the ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.

What are some peculiar features of Gobekli Tepe?

Göbekli Tepe – History and Significance

First and foremost, the site sits on a 1,000-foot diameter mound. Then, there are a number of monolithic pillars linked in a circular format by dry stone walls. This forms the oval structure of the complex. In the middle of the complex are two very large pillars.

The floors of the complex are believed to have been made from terrazzo, i.e. burnt lime. So are the T-shaped pillars. Those pillars are about 16 feet tall.

With regard to the artworks, the carvings on those pillars feature a number of animals such as vultures, foxes, lions, bulls, gazelles, scorpions, snakes, wild boars, etc. There are also bas reliefs of abstract shapes. Some of these shapes are faceless and eyeless images believed to be the gods of the people. Considering it was a religious site, the temple abounds with religious symbols that are still yet to be interpreted. For example, archeologists are scratching their heads as to what the naked women on the carvings symbolized.

Another interesting thing about Göbekli Tepe is that there is an abnormally large number of vulture carvings and skeletal remains of vultures. Why were these people so fascinated with vultures?

Why were there large depictions of vultures at Gobekli Tepe?

To begin, we must state emphatically that vulture depictions and carvings were quite common in many Anatolian cultural sites. Most notable site has to be the settlement at Çatal Höyük – built about 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE in south-central Turkey.

The fascination with vulture stems from the animal’s association with death and decay. One must remember that Gobekli Tepe was in fact a religious site – a site perhaps devoted to funerary activities and rituals. It makes so much sense for the people to select vultures as the predominant symbol of the place.

Some scholars believe that the people of those times would leave the dead bodies to the elements, as well as the attacks of vultures and once the flesh had been consumed by the vultures, the skeletons were then buried at another site.

Why was it abandoned over the millennia?

There is no particular reason why the temple was abandoned over the millennia. However, the dominant view states that Gobekli Tepe fell into obscurity after the several buildings sprung up close to the temple. The inhabitants most likely cut down the trees in the surrounding area. And with the invention of farming, the people may have started dumping waste on the site.

The complete disregard for the site most like came because the new inhabitants in the area most likely outgrew the religious practices of their ancestors. A new religion must have sprung up necessitated by agriculture and farming activities, and thereby leading to the abandonment of Gobekli Tepe. Over the centuries debris and waste accumulated over the site, burying it deep beneath the earth. New structures were also built on top of the site.

The good thing is that the complex was submerged under a pile of dirt. Had that not occurred, the site would probably not have been preserved up to this day. Our heartfelt gratitude goes out to the ancient folks for dumping their waste and mud over the site!


Gobekli Tepe

Gobekli Tepe is yet another archeological site that to some, defies consensus history of the human race. The site is located in modern-day Turkey containing the worlds oldest known megaliths, which baffle the minds of geophysical surveyors because they’re far too advanced for the era they were built. First discovered in the 60s, the importance of these ruins wouldn’t be revealed until modern times. And like Dwarka, forces humanity to re-think the accepted version of the dawn of civilization.

When the site was discovered and surveyed by Istanbul University back in 1963, the researchers mistook the stone slabs for a Roman-Byzantine cemetery. For generations, the locals had been using the area for agricultural cultivation. They moved many rocks and stone slabs around in clearance piles. Over time, this formed the first layer of the excavation site, which in turn led the archaeologists to come up with the graveyard theory. Decades passed with this being the status quo concerning Gobekli Tepe.

It wasn’t until 1994 that a more objective view of the site was revealed by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archeological Institute. It was discovered that many of the ruins were far more ancient than the Byzantine Empire. In fact, Schmidt came to the conclusion that Gobekli Tepe was pre-historic. Rendering many history books obsolete. A new archeological survey was conducted which dated the ruins to be around a staggering 12,000 years old. Which cemented Gobekli Tepe as one of the most important archeological discoveries ever made.

The site is unique for two reasons: Not only is it beyond ancient, but it was covered in layers of dirt by the former occupants. It can’t really be said why the site was abandoned, however, because it was buried Gobekli Tepe has been immaculately preserved over the millennia.

They built this at a time humans are supposed to be hunter-gatherer cavemen

Now, for a long time, the site was considered a temple complex. You know, some ancient place of worship. For the most part that was a totally logical conclusion when comparing the site with other neolithic ruins around the Near East. But, recent research indicates this theory is not as reliable as formerly thought. Ancient temples and places of worship were the home of gods and treated with utter reverence. However, archeological evidence indicates daily activities of mundane life at Gobekli Tepe. Which would be inappropriate in a temple setting. The evidence also suggests not only people living at Gobekli Tepe but that the site had a pretty decent sized population, and very well could have been the capital of an unknown civilization in its own right. So the decorative pillars and massive construction efforts most likely weren’t made for a temple, but are the grand achievements of an ancient prehistory culture.

If you’re not familiar with fringe archeology, it may be hard to wrap your head around. Let’s just compare the age of Gobekli Tepe to other ancient sites. Stonehenge is a popular one. Well, Gobekli Tepe is older than Stonehenge by an insane 6,000 years. That means there’s a gap in time between the construction of Gobekli Tepe and Stonehenge as much as the construction of Stonehenge and the modern age. So according to “mainstream history” the ruins of Gobekli Tepe predate Egypt, the Sumerians, and even the alleged invention of writing by millennia. Everyone has heard about the magnificence of ancient Egypt, but the Sumerians are considered the oldest human civilization. They originated in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, whose ancient tablets have given rise to the theory of the Annunaki and Nephilim thanks to Zacharia Sitchin. Though admittedly his work is pretty easy to debunk with enough research, it’s still fascinating.

Not only is Gobekli Tepe seriously ancient, but it was also thousands of years more advanced than what should be possible. The style, skill of the architects, and construction quality would be awe-inspiring in any era of history, even until the present day. Its construction shouldn’t be logically possible based on the accepted view of humanity at that age in our history. How were stone age people making engineering wonders that would be just as impressive today as I’m sure it was then? The sheer amount of manpower, engineering, project management, and limited technology should have made it impossible for a prehistory civilization to achieve. Gobekli Tepe’s very existence is an anomaly. The gigantic effort required to construct Gobekli Tepe would be a struggle even in modern times and take an immense amount of resources and adept architects and stonemasons to achieve. The stone structures would have required hundreds of people to build them. Moving around stone slabs the size at Gobekli Tepe would require hydraulic machines nowadays. But, somehow this ancient civilization pulled it off with ropes and pullies I’d assume? This indicates the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe to be a strong civilized culture with immense social stability and sophisticated knowledge unknown to archeologists for most of human history.

The mystery civilization had brilliant minds capable of impossible feats of engineering and architectural design. I mean, the largest stones weigh up to ten tons. Who the hell is moving around ten-ton stone slabs before history even started? Not only that, but the pillars and stone works are stylized in artistic designs. Some even with human faces carved into them. Many people think whole pillars are stylized depictions of human beings, but there are lots of elegant animal carvings on the stone structures as well. These images are some of the few clues we have of the belief system the people who constructed Gobekli Tepe subscribed to. The entire site is decorated with elaborate artistic carvings way ahead of its time, easily comparable with any of the wonders of the ancient world. There’s no way it should have existed 12,000 years ago considering our understanding of history.

It has to be impossible people so ancient could create something so advanced

When the site was under re-excavation in the 90s, at first the site seemed like a single temple construction, but as they dug deeper, the immaculately preserved ruins just got wider and wider. It seemed like everywhere in the area the archeologists dug, there were more impressive stone ruins discovered. Gobekli Tepe is huge, with 20 different excavation sites to date. The site has the worlds first known structure with perfectly aligned north and south buildings, which would have required advanced knowledge of astronomy and mathematics.

Evidence suggests the site prospered and endured for around 3,000 years before being abandoned and lost to history for the next 9,000 years. This has been estimated to occur around the time of the last ice age. According to mainstream history, humans back then were primitive hunter-gatherers who were constantly on the move and nomadic in search for food. Making the existence of an advanced civilization having the ability to create a wonder like Gobekli Tepe a true anomaly in how we understand history.

The only thing that stopped early humans in their nomadic lifestyle was the discovery of farming. It’s agriculture that laid the foundations for civilization. This is a fact. So the discovery of Gobekli Tepe’s true nature means there was an advanced civilization using agriculture almost 6,000 years before it is supposed to have been invented. Farming is what lead to permanent settlements and allowed a more stable social life. It’s only when societies have stability that sophisticated cultures grow. Which leads to art, engineering, and sciences. All things that the creators of Gobekli Tepe had to have in abundance in order to create their architectural achievements.

Never underestimate the heights to which the human race can climb in achievement

Its existence could also suggest some pre-history humans created permanent settlements long before they gained the ability to farm. Which is HIGHLY unlikely, but possible. It’s not logical a civilization with the impressive technology and engineering that would be necessary to create something like Gobekli Tepe to not have the ability to farm. Though there are people like Graham Hancock who think agriculture popped up in the area soon after Gobekli Tepe was founded. Though the man’s views may be quite “out there” to some and just like anything should be taken with a grain of salt, they are quite fascinating. I’ve talked about him before and admit that I am a fan of his work, though I’ll never take what he says as straight fact, nor should you. If you’re unfamiliar with Graham Hanock, he’s a British writer and reporter who specializes in pseudoscientific theories about consciousness, ancient myths, and civilizations, as well as the mysteries surrounding the advancement of humankind throughout our history. A running theme in his books is an overall ancient mother culture he believes all ancient civilizations came from. Which according to him explains why all ancient cultures share a flood myth (the end of the last ice age) even though none of the cultures ever had any interaction with one another.

Hanock believes the creators of Gobekli Tepe were survivors of this pre-history mother culture. A civilization far more advanced than most throughout history (possibly even our modern civilization.) He also believes he knows the exact founding date of Gobekli Tepe, exactly 11,600 years ago. These are truly fascinating theories to me because I’ve loved Atlantis tales ever since I was a kid (but remember that grain of salt I talked about.) Hancock claims Gobekli Tepe was founded by the remnants this fallen civilization and commenced in a technology exchange with the hunter-gatherers of the area. They did this in an attempt to “re-start” civilization. According to Hancock they obviously failed, but they did spark the flame that would eventually burn into civilization in the millennia to come. Graham Hancock claims we are the descendants of all the knowledge passed down from these advanced people. Because there were other survivors of this fallen mother culture that attempted the same thing in other parts of the world.

It’s important to remember Hancock says these people were human beings, not aliens or anything like that. Ancient Alien theories too commonly write off the ingenuity and brilliance of the human race. It’s no wonder Gobekli Tepe is a favorite subject of the infamous History Channel show Ancient Aliens. A show where they present often groundless theories that aliens have visited Earth many times and have had a massive influence on humanity’s development. It can be an interesting show to watch, but is entirely based on the old saying “don’t let facts get in the way of a good story.” Though honestly ancient alien stuff is really fun to think about and research.

We ALL know and love this guy

After all the archeological information concerning Gobekli Tepe became available, its become one of the most famous sites in the world. And like I said earlier it’s also one of the most well preserved. Portions of it are still being dug up and restored till this day. Not only to draw in tourists but to give a clearer picture of what Gobekli Tepe may have looked like in its prime. Though it’s far older than the modern country of Turkey, it has become a point of national pride for them. Gobekli Tepe is among the greatest archeological finds in history, giving us a clue that we actually know very little concerning our origins as a species. Despite what historians may say. It’s archeological finds like these that can help break the accepted narrative and open peoples eyes to the fact that there are still so many mysteries about humanity just waiting to be discovered and solved.

One day I’ll have to visit the breathtaking monument to human accomplishment


Who was the shepherd that discovered the Gobekli Tepe? - History

PREHISTORIC SITE OF Göbekli Tepe (Xerabreshkê/Girê Navokê)



Do these mysterious stones mark the site of the Garden of Eden?

By Tom Cox


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For the old Kurdish shepherd, it was just another burning hot day in the rolling plains of eastern Turkey. Following his flock over the arid hillsides, he passed the single mulberry tree, which the locals regarded as 'sacred'. The bells on his sheep tinkled in the stillness. Then he spotted something. Crouching down, he brushed away the dust, and exposed a strange, large, oblong stone.
The man looked left and right: there were similar stone rectangles, peeping from the sands. Calling his dog to heel, the shepherd resolved to inform someone of his finds when he got back to the village. Maybe the stones were important.
They certainly were important. The solitary Kurdish man, on that summer's day in 1994, had made the greatest archaeological discovery in 50 years. Others would say he'd made the greatest archaeological discovery ever: a site that has revolutionised the way we look at human history, the origin of religion - and perhaps even the truth behind the Garden of Eden

The site has been described as 'extraordinary' and 'the most important' site in the world

A few weeks after his discovery, news of the shepherd's find reached museum curators in the ancient city of Sanliurfa, ten miles south-west of the stones.
They got in touch with the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul. And so, in late 1994, archaeologist Klaus Schmidt came to the site of Gobekli Tepe (pronounced Go-beckly Tepp-ay) to begin his excavations.
As he puts it: 'As soon as I got there and saw the stones, I knew that if I didn't walk away immediately I would be here for the rest of my life.'
Remarkable find: A frieze from Gobekli Tepe
Schmidt stayed. And what he has uncovered is astonishing. Archaeologists worldwide are in rare agreement on the site's importance. 'Gobekli Tepe changes everything,' says Ian Hodder, at Stanford University.
David Lewis-Williams, professor of archaeology at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, says: 'Gobekli Tepe is the most important archaeological site in the world.'
Some go even further and say the site and its implications are incredible. As Reading University professor Steve Mithen says: 'Gobekli Tepe is too extraordinary for my mind to understand.'
So what is it that has energised and astounded the sober world of academia?
The site of Gobekli Tepe is simple enough to describe. The oblong stones, unearthed by the shepherd, turned out to be the flat tops of awesome, T-shaped megaliths. Imagine carved and slender versions of the stones of Avebury or Stonehenge.
Most of these standing stones are inscribed with bizarre and delicate images - mainly of boars and ducks, of hunting and game. Sinuous serpents are another common motif. Some of the megaliths show crayfish or lions.
The stones seem to represent human forms - some have stylised 'arms', which angle down the sides. Functionally, the site appears to be a temple, or ritual site, like the stone circles of Western Europe.
To date, 45 of these stones have been dug out - they are arranged in circles from five to ten yards across - but there are indications that much more is to come. Geomagnetic surveys imply that there are hundreds more standing stones, just waiting to be excavated.
So far, so remarkable. If Gobekli Tepe was simply this, it would already be a dazzling site - a Turkish Stonehenge. But several unique factors lift Gobekli Tepe into the archaeological stratosphere - and the realms of the fantastical.

Remarkable find: A frieze from Gobekli Tepe

The Garden of Eden come to life: Is Gobekli Tepe where the story began?

The first is its staggering age. Carbon-dating shows that the complex is at least 12,000 years old, maybe even 13,000 years old.
That means it was built around 10,000BC. By comparison, Stonehenge was built in 3,000 BC and the pyramids of Giza in 2,500 BC.
Gobekli is thus the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin. It is so old that it predates settled human life. It is pre-pottery, pre-writing, pre-everything. Gobekli hails from a part of human history that is unimaginably distant, right back in our hunter-gatherer past.
How did cavemen build something so ambitious? Schmidt speculates that bands of hunters would have gathered sporadically at the site, through the decades of construction, living in animal-skin tents, slaughtering local game for food.
The many flint arrowheads found around Gobekli support this thesis they also support the dating of the site.
This revelation, that Stone Age hunter-gatherers could have built something like Gobekli, is worldchanging, for it shows that the old hunter-gatherer life, in this region of Turkey, was far more advanced than we ever conceived - almost unbelievably sophisticated.

The shepherd who discovered Gobekli Tepe has 'changed everything', said one academic

It's as if the gods came down from heaven and built Gobekli for themselves.
This is where we come to the biblical connection, and my own involvement in the Gobekli Tepe story.
About three years ago, intrigued by the first scant details of the site, I flew out to Gobekli. It was a long, wearying journey, but more than worth it, not least as it would later provide the backdrop for a new novel I have written.
Back then, on the day I arrived at the dig, the archaeologists were unearthing mind-blowing artworks. As these sculptures were revealed, I realised that I was among the first people to see them since the end of the Ice Age.
And that's when a tantalising possibility arose. Over glasses of black tea, served in tents right next to the megaliths, Klaus Schmidt told me that, in his opinion, this very spot was once the site of the biblical Garden of Eden. More specifically, as he put it: 'Gobekli Tepe is a temple in Eden.'
To understand how a respected academic like Schmidt can make such a dizzying claim, you need to know that many scholars view the Eden story as folk-memory, or allegory.
Seen in this way, the Eden story, in Genesis, tells us of humanity's innocent and leisured hunter-gatherer past, when we could pluck fruit from the trees, scoop fish from the rivers and spend the rest of our days in pleasure.
But then we 'fell' into the harsher life of farming, with its ceaseless toil and daily grind. And we know primitive farming was harsh, compared to the relative indolence of hunting, because of the archaeological evidence.

To date, archaeologists have dug 45 stones out of the ruins at Gobekli Tepe

When people make the transition from hunter-gathering to settled agriculture, their skeletons change - they temporarily grow smaller and less healthy as the human body adapts to a diet poorer in protein and a more wearisome lifestyle. Likewise, newly domesticated animals get scrawnier.
This begs the question, why adopt farming at all? Many theories have been suggested - from tribal competition, to population pressures, to the extinction of wild animal species. But Schmidt believes that the temple of Gobekli reveals another possible cause.
'To build such a place as this, the hunters must have joined together in numbers. After they finished building, they probably congregated for worship. But then they found that they couldn't feed so many people with regular hunting and gathering.
'So I think they began cultivating the wild grasses on the hills. Religion motivated people to take up farming.'
The reason such theories have special weight is that the move to farming first happened in this same region. These rolling Anatolian plains were the cradle of agriculture.
The world's first farmyard pigs were domesticated at Cayonu, just 60 miles away. Sheep, cattle and goats were also first domesticated in eastern Turkey. Worldwide wheat species descend from einkorn wheat - first cultivated on the hills near Gobekli. Other domestic cereals - such as rye and oats - also started here

The stones unearthed by the shepherd turned out to be the flat tops of T-shaped megaliths

But there was a problem for these early farmers, and it wasn't just that they had adopted a tougher, if ultimately more productive, lifestyle. They also experienced an ecological crisis. These days the landscape surrounding the eerie stones of Gobekli is arid and barren, but it was not always thus. As the carvings on the stones show - and as archaeological remains reveal - this was once a richly pastoral region.
There were herds of game, rivers of fish, and flocks of wildfowl lush green meadows were ringed by woods and wild orchards. About 10,000 years ago, the Kurdish desert was a 'paradisiacal place', as Schmidt puts it. So what destroyed the environment? The answer is Man.
As we began farming, we changed the landscape and the climate. When the trees were chopped down, the soil leached away all that ploughing and reaping left the land eroded and bare. What was once an agreeable oasis became a land of stress, toil and diminishing returns.
And so, paradise was lost. Adam the hunter was forced out of his glorious Eden, 'to till the earth from whence he was taken' - as the Bible puts it.
Of course, these theories might be dismissed as speculations. Yet there is plenty of historical evidence to show that the writers of the Bible, when talking of Eden, were, indeed, describing this corner of Kurdish Turkey.

Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt poses next to some of the carvings at Gebekli

In the Book of Genesis, it is indicated that Eden is west of Assyria. Sure enough, this is where Gobekli is sited.
Likewise, biblical Eden is by four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates. And Gobekli lies between both of these.
In ancient Assyrian texts, there is mention of a 'Beth Eden' - a house of Eden. This minor kingdom was 50 miles from Gobekli Tepe.
Another book in the Old Testament talks of 'the children of Eden which were in Thelasar', a town in northern Syria, near Gobekli.
The very word 'Eden' comes from the Sumerian for 'plain' Gobekli lies on the plains of Harran.
Thus, when you put it all together, the evidence is persuasive. Gobekli Tepe is, indeed, a 'temple in Eden', built by our leisured and fortunate ancestors - people who had time to cultivate art, architecture and complex ritual, before the traumas of agriculture ruined their lifestyle, and devastated their paradise.
It's a stunning and seductive idea. Yet it has a sinister epilogue. Because the loss of paradise seems to have had a strange and darkening effect on the human mind.

Many of Gobekli's standing stones are inscribed with 'bizarre and delicate' images, like this reptile

A few years ago, archaeologists at nearby Cayonu unearthed a hoard of human skulls. They were found under an altar-like slab, stained with human blood.
No one is sure, but this may be the earliest evidence for human sacrifice: one of the most inexplicable of human behaviours and one that could have evolved only in the face of terrible societal stress.
Experts may argue over the evidence at Cayonu. But what no one denies is that human sacrifice took place in this region, spreading to Palestine, Canaan and Israel.
Archaeological evidence suggests that victims were killed in huge death pits, children were buried alive in jars, others roasted in vast bronze bowls.
These are almost incomprehensible acts, unless you understand that the people had learned to fear their gods, having been cast out of paradise. So they sought to propitiate the angry heavens.
This savagery may, indeed, hold the key to one final, bewildering mystery. The astonishing stones and friezes of Gobekli Tepe are preserved intact for a bizarre reason.
Long ago, the site was deliberately and systematically buried in a feat of labour every bit as remarkable as the stone carvings.


The stones of Gobekli Tepe are trying to speak to us from across the centuries - a warning we should heed

Around 8,000 BC, the creators of Gobekli turned on their achievement and entombed their glorious temple under thousands of tons of earth, creating the artificial hills on which that Kurdish shepherd walked in 1994.
No one knows why Gobekli was buried. Maybe it was interred as a kind of penance: a sacrifice to the angry gods, who had cast the hunters out of paradise. Perhaps it was for shame at the violence and bloodshed that the stone-worship had helped provoke.
Whatever the answer, the parallels with our own era are stark. As we contemplate a new age of ecological turbulence, maybe the silent, sombre, 12,000-year-old stones of Gobekli Tepe are trying to speak to us, to warn us, as they stare across the first Eden we destroyed.

The Genesis Secret by Tom Knox is published by Harper Collins on March 9, priced £6.99. To order a copy (P&P free), call 0845 155 0720.


Across the world and across time, man has enjoyed building large monuments. To give you an idea of just how old Gobekli Tepe is, consider the following timeline:

1644 AD – Construction on the Great Wall of China ended with a total length in excess of 20,000 km.

1400-1600 AD – The moai on Easter Island were erected.

1372 AD – The Leaning Tower, in Pisa, Italy, was completed after 200 years of construction.

1113-1150 AD – The Khmer of Southeast Asia built the enormous temple to Vishnu, Angkor Vat.

200 AD – The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan, Mexico was completed.

220 BC – Construction on the Great Wall of China began.

432 BC – The “apotheosis of ancient Greek architecture,” the Parthenon, was completed.

3000-1500 BC – About 5,000 years ago, a group of crazy Neolithic Britons hauled enormous four-ton stones over 140 miles to erect Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain.

2550-2580 BC – Pharaoh Khufu’s tomb, the Great Pyramid of Giza, was completed. It remained the tallest manmade construction until 1311 when the Lincoln Cathedral in England was completed.

4500-2000 BC – Pre-Celts cut and placed over 3,000 stones in Carnac, France.

9130-8800 BC – The first 20 round structures at Gobekli Tepe were built.


Gobekli Tepe

Gobekli Tepe is yet another archeological site that to some, defies consensus history of the human race. The site is located in modern-day Turkey containing the worlds oldest known megaliths, which baffle the minds of geophysical surveyors because they’re far too advanced for the era they were built. First discovered in the 60s, the importance of these ruins wouldn’t be revealed until modern times. And like Dwarka, forces humanity to re-think the accepted version of the dawn of civilization.

When the site was discovered and surveyed by Istanbul University back in 1963, the researchers mistook the stone slabs for a Roman-Byzantine cemetery. For generations, the locals had been using the area for agricultural cultivation. They moved many rocks and stone slabs around in clearance piles. Over time, this formed the first layer of the excavation site, which in turn led the archaeologists to come up with the graveyard theory. Decades passed with this being the status quo concerning Gobekli Tepe.

It wasn’t until 1994 that a more objective view of the site was revealed by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archeological Institute. It was discovered that many of the ruins were far more ancient than the Byzantine Empire. In fact, Schmidt came to the conclusion that Gobekli Tepe was pre-historic. Rendering many history books obsolete. A new archeological survey was conducted which dated the ruins to be around a staggering 12,000 years old. Which cemented Gobekli Tepe as one of the most important archeological discoveries ever made.

The site is unique for two reasons: Not only is it beyond ancient, but it was covered in layers of dirt by the former occupants. It can’t really be said why the site was abandoned, however, because it was buried Gobekli Tepe has been immaculately preserved over the millennia.

They built this at a time humans are supposed to be hunter-gatherer cavemen

Now, for a long time, the site was considered a temple complex. You know, some ancient place of worship. For the most part that was a totally logical conclusion when comparing the site with other neolithic ruins around the Near East. But, recent research indicates this theory is not as reliable as formerly thought. Ancient temples and places of worship were the home of gods and treated with utter reverence. However, archeological evidence indicates daily activities of mundane life at Gobekli Tepe. Which would be inappropriate in a temple setting. The evidence also suggests not only people living at Gobekli Tepe but that the site had a pretty decent sized population, and very well could have been the capital of an unknown civilization in its own right. So the decorative pillars and massive construction efforts most likely weren’t made for a temple, but are the grand achievements of an ancient prehistory culture.

If you’re not familiar with fringe archeology, it may be hard to wrap your head around. Let’s just compare the age of Gobekli Tepe to other ancient sites. Stonehenge is a popular one. Well, Gobekli Tepe is older than Stonehenge by an insane 6,000 years. That means there’s a gap in time between the construction of Gobekli Tepe and Stonehenge as much as the construction of Stonehenge and the modern age. So according to “mainstream history” the ruins of Gobekli Tepe predate Egypt, the Sumerians, and even the alleged invention of writing by millennia. Everyone has heard about the magnificence of ancient Egypt, but the Sumerians are considered the oldest human civilization. They originated in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, whose ancient tablets have given rise to the theory of the Annunaki and Nephilim thanks to Zacharia Sitchin. Though admittedly his work is pretty easy to debunk with enough research, it’s still fascinating.

Not only is Gobekli Tepe seriously ancient, but it was also thousands of years more advanced than what should be possible. The style, skill of the architects, and construction quality would be awe-inspiring in any era of history, even until the present day. Its construction shouldn’t be logically possible based on the accepted view of humanity at that age in our history. How were stone age people making engineering wonders that would be just as impressive today as I’m sure it was then? The sheer amount of manpower, engineering, project management, and limited technology should have made it impossible for a prehistory civilization to achieve. Gobekli Tepe’s very existence is an anomaly. The gigantic effort required to construct Gobekli Tepe would be a struggle even in modern times and take an immense amount of resources and adept architects and stonemasons to achieve. The stone structures would have required hundreds of people to build them. Moving around stone slabs the size at Gobekli Tepe would require hydraulic machines nowadays. But, somehow this ancient civilization pulled it off with ropes and pullies I’d assume? This indicates the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe to be a strong civilized culture with immense social stability and sophisticated knowledge unknown to archeologists for most of human history.

The mystery civilization had brilliant minds capable of impossible feats of engineering and architectural design. I mean, the largest stones weigh up to ten tons. Who the hell is moving around ten-ton stone slabs before history even started? Not only that, but the pillars and stone works are stylized in artistic designs. Some even with human faces carved into them. Many people think whole pillars are stylized depictions of human beings, but there are lots of elegant animal carvings on the stone structures as well. These images are some of the few clues we have of the belief system the people who constructed Gobekli Tepe subscribed to. The entire site is decorated with elaborate artistic carvings way ahead of its time, easily comparable with any of the wonders of the ancient world. There’s no way it should have existed 12,000 years ago considering our understanding of history.

It has to be impossible people so ancient could create something so advanced

When the site was under re-excavation in the 90s, at first the site seemed like a single temple construction, but as they dug deeper, the immaculately preserved ruins just got wider and wider. It seemed like everywhere in the area the archeologists dug, there were more impressive stone ruins discovered. Gobekli Tepe is huge, with 20 different excavation sites to date. The site has the worlds first known structure with perfectly aligned north and south buildings, which would have required advanced knowledge of astronomy and mathematics.

Evidence suggests the site prospered and endured for around 3,000 years before being abandoned and lost to history for the next 9,000 years. This has been estimated to occur around the time of the last ice age. According to mainstream history, humans back then were primitive hunter-gatherers who were constantly on the move and nomadic in search for food. Making the existence of an advanced civilization having the ability to create a wonder like Gobekli Tepe a true anomaly in how we understand history.

The only thing that stopped early humans in their nomadic lifestyle was the discovery of farming. It’s agriculture that laid the foundations for civilization. This is a fact. So the discovery of Gobekli Tepe’s true nature means there was an advanced civilization using agriculture almost 6,000 years before it is supposed to have been invented. Farming is what lead to permanent settlements and allowed a more stable social life. It’s only when societies have stability that sophisticated cultures grow. Which leads to art, engineering, and sciences. All things that the creators of Gobekli Tepe had to have in abundance in order to create their architectural achievements.

Never underestimate the heights to which the human race can climb in achievement

Its existence could also suggest some pre-history humans created permanent settlements long before they gained the ability to farm. Which is HIGHLY unlikely, but possible. It’s not logical a civilization with the impressive technology and engineering that would be necessary to create something like Gobekli Tepe to not have the ability to farm. Though there are people like Graham Hancock who think agriculture popped up in the area soon after Gobekli Tepe was founded. Though the man’s views may be quite “out there” to some and just like anything should be taken with a grain of salt, they are quite fascinating. I’ve talked about him before and admit that I am a fan of his work, though I’ll never take what he says as straight fact, nor should you. If you’re unfamiliar with Graham Hanock, he’s a British writer and reporter who specializes in pseudoscientific theories about consciousness, ancient myths, and civilizations, as well as the mysteries surrounding the advancement of humankind throughout our history. A running theme in his books is an overall ancient mother culture he believes all ancient civilizations came from. Which according to him explains why all ancient cultures share a flood myth (the end of the last ice age) even though none of the cultures ever had any interaction with one another.

Hanock believes the creators of Gobekli Tepe were survivors of this pre-history mother culture. A civilization far more advanced than most throughout history (possibly even our modern civilization.) He also believes he knows the exact founding date of Gobekli Tepe, exactly 11,600 years ago. These are truly fascinating theories to me because I’ve loved Atlantis tales ever since I was a kid (but remember that grain of salt I talked about.) Hancock claims Gobekli Tepe was founded by the remnants this fallen civilization and commenced in a technology exchange with the hunter-gatherers of the area. They did this in an attempt to “re-start” civilization. According to Hancock they obviously failed, but they did spark the flame that would eventually burn into civilization in the millennia to come. Graham Hancock claims we are the descendants of all the knowledge passed down from these advanced people. Because there were other survivors of this fallen mother culture that attempted the same thing in other parts of the world.

It’s important to remember Hancock says these people were human beings, not aliens or anything like that. Ancient Alien theories too commonly write off the ingenuity and brilliance of the human race. It’s no wonder Gobekli Tepe is a favorite subject of the infamous History Channel show Ancient Aliens. A show where they present often groundless theories that aliens have visited Earth many times and have had a massive influence on humanity’s development. It can be an interesting show to watch, but is entirely based on the old saying “don’t let facts get in the way of a good story.” Though honestly ancient alien stuff is really fun to think about and research.

We ALL know and love this guy

After all the archeological information concerning Gobekli Tepe became available, its become one of the most famous sites in the world. And like I said earlier it’s also one of the most well preserved. Portions of it are still being dug up and restored till this day. Not only to draw in tourists but to give a clearer picture of what Gobekli Tepe may have looked like in its prime. Though it’s far older than the modern country of Turkey, it has become a point of national pride for them. Gobekli Tepe is among the greatest archeological finds in history, giving us a clue that we actually know very little concerning our origins as a species. Despite what historians may say. It’s archeological finds like these that can help break the accepted narrative and open peoples eyes to the fact that there are still so many mysteries about humanity just waiting to be discovered and solved.

One day I’ll have to visit the breathtaking monument to human accomplishment


Watch the video: 12,000-Year-Old Karahantepe REVEALED to the World. Ancient Architects (July 2022).


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